3 Coastal Landscapes Flashcards Preview

GCSE Geography > 3 Coastal Landscapes > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3 Coastal Landscapes Deck (10):
1

Types of erosion (4)

Abrasion, attrition, hydraulic action and solution.

2

Types of transportation (5)

Longshore drift, solution, saltation, suspension and traction.

3

Types of mass movement (3)

Slumping, sliding and rockfall.

4

Types of Weathering (3)

Chemical, biological and mechanical.

5

Main type of mechanical weathering

Freeze-thaw weathering.
- Water gets into the cracks of rocks
- The water freezes which causes it to expand, putting pressure on the rock
- When the water thaws it contracts, releasing the pressure on the rock
- Repeated freezing and thawing widens cracks and causes the rock to break up

6

What waves carry out erosional processes?

Destructive waves.
- High frequency (10/14 waves per min)
- High and steep
- Backwash more powerful than swash

7

Explain the formation of wave-cut platforms

- Waves cause most erosion at the foot of a cliff
- This forms a wave-cut notch which is enlarged as erosion continues
- The rock above the notch becomes unstable and eventually collapses
- The collapsed material is washed away and a new wave-cut notch starts to form
- Repeated collapsing results in the cliff retreating
- A wave-cut platform is the platform that’s left behind as the cliff retreats

8

Explain the formation of headlands and bays

- Soft rock has low resistance to erosion. Hard rock has a high resistance to erosion.
- Headlands and bags form where there are alternating bands of resistant and less resistant rock along the coast
- The less resistant rock (e.g. clay) is eroded quickly and this forms a bay (bays have a gentle slope)
- The resistant rock (e.g. limestone) is eroded more slowly and is left jutting out, forming a headland (headlands have steep sides)

9

Explain the formation of caves, arches and stacks.

Headlands are eroded to form caves, arches and stacks.
- Waves crash into the headlands and enlarge any cracks by hydraulic action and abrasion
- Repeated erosion and enlargement of the cracks causes a cave to form
- Continued erosion deepens the cave until it breaks through the headland forming an arch
- Erosion continues to wear away the rock supporting the arch until eventually it collapses, this forms a stack (an isolated rock that’s separate from the headland)

10

Which waves deposit more material than they erode?

Constructive waves.
- Low frequency
- Low and long
- Swash is more powerful and carries material up the coast
- Backwash is weaker and doesn’t take a lot of material back down the coast