Flashcards in #3. Head, Face & Spinal Injuries Deck (62):
Meninges: "dense layer right inside the skull"
Meninges: "web of blood vessels"
Meninges: "delicate layer that encompasses the brain
injuries to tailbone fractures can lead to _____
the sacrum has ___ fused vertebrae
When you put extra pressure on the front part of the disk it wants to slip out of the back - what is this called?
People often get numbness down an arm or leg (sciatica) that is caused by what?
There are 5 ligaments on the back side of the spine and only 1 on the front side - why is this?
most live on the backside because we have bones that stop us from going into extension, but we need the support from the ligaments to stop us from going into flexion.
Etiology of a ___ ___ - usually associated with direct blow or indirect force that travels from mandible to the skull.
5 types of skull fractures?
1. Depression Fracture
2. Compound Fracture
3. Hairline Fracture
4. Subdural Hematoma
5. Epidural Hematoma
what does 'toma' mean?
What type of fracture is it when bone is actually separated?
Skull fractures usually result in one of what three conditions?
1. Epidural hematoma
2. Subdural hematoma
3. Intra-cranial hemorrhaging
When can you use a halo test?
To see if it is sinus fluid of CSF that is leaking from the nose. Check after head trauma.
Blood in the middle ear, ear canal, nose, or ecchymosis around the eyes or ears might be a sign of?
what is ecchymosis?
A focal injury to the brain that involves small hemorrhages or intracranial bleeding within the cortex, stem, or cerebellum; generally occurs when head strikes a stationary object. Etiology for?
Cerebral Contusion (brain bruise)
If someone is very "talky" and then loses consciousness after then receive head trauma, what is this a sign of?
cerebral contusion (brain bruise)
Direct blow to the head for fracture; damages superficial tissue & meningeal artery; blood accumulates rapidly. Etiology for?
LOC followed by a period of lucidity and showing few signs and symptoms of a serious head injury can be a sign of?
Result of acceleration/deceleration forces that tear vessels that bridge dura matter and brain; can be acute or chronic. Etiology for?
LOC, dilation of one pupil, headache, nausea, or sleepiness are all sighs of?
Occurs in young population within minutes to hours following head injury; caused by intracranial clot resulting in diffuse brain swelling with little or no brain injury; swelling is the result of hypermia or vascular engorgement that results in increased pressure. Etiology for?
Malignant Brain Edema Syndrome
Rapid neurologic deterioration that progresses to coma and occasionally death. Signs of?
Malignant Brain Edema Syndrome
_____ posture is indicative of damage to neural pathway between the brain and spinal cord, posture can be uni or bilateral, and the person holds a flexed posture.
______ posture is typically associated with severe brain trauma, has severe muscle spasming of the neck and back, person holds an extended posture.
Facial Fracture Incidence? Top 4.
2. Mandibular (jaw)
4. Maxillary (houses upper teeth)
Involves TMJ joint and MOI is generally from a blow to an open mouth from the side. Etiology of?
Cold application, elastic wrap, immobilization and reduction are management for what>
Deformity, loss of occlusion, pain with biting, bleeding around teeth, and lower lip anesthesia are signs of?
Management for facial fracture?
temporary immobilization with elastic wrap and ice - then refer out to a hospital for reconstruction
What is the most important part of managing a maxillary or zygomatic facial fracture?
Diplopia (double vision), restricted eye movement, downward displacement of the eye, swelling/bruising, and cheek numbness are signs of?
orbital facial fracture
Why do you not let someone blow their nose if you suspect an orbital fracture?
pressure can cause eyeball to eject from positon
a grating sound or sensation produced by friction between bone and cartilage or the fractured parts of a bone
If a dental fracture occurs, what must be ruled out? How long can follow up wait for?
Mandibular fractures and concussions - 24-48 hours
Why is the face so susceptible to lacerations, especially young people?
Collagen pulls the skin tight on the face so when you are cut it splits! Young people have more collagen and their skin is much tighter.
REDs acronym? What is it used to control?
-used to control bleeding
Difference between luxation, subluxation, and avulsion when it comes to teeth? Management time for all three?
Luxation: like a shoulder dilocation - immediate followup
Subluxation: wiggly tooth - referral within 48 hours
Avulsion: completely out - save the tooth and needs to be implanted back in within 2 hours!
When is the only time you pull an item out of a face?
If it is blocking an airway
If someone receives an eye injury, how should they be transported?
In a recumbent position(semi seated) and both eyes should be covered.
Cold application for at least 30 minutes, 24 hours of rest if the patient has distorted vision, dont let them blow nose, and monitor for concussion are types of management for?
Blunt blow to the eye that can lead to serious problems with lens, choroid or retina. Etiology for?
hyphema (pooling/collection of blood)
A fall or slap to the unprotected ear or sudden underwater pressure variation. Etiology for?
Ruptured Tympanic Membrane
Complaint of loud pop followed by pain in the ear, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness are all signs of?
Ruptured tympanic membrane
Auricular hematoma is aka?
If an auricular hematoma is left unattended, what will happen?
clot and then fibrosis
Compression or shear injury to the ear that causes subcutaneous bleeding is etiology for?
auricular hematoma (cauliflower ear)
Ligamentous sprains are aka?
temporal difference between strains and sprains?
sprains last longer
The sensation of cycling legs can indicate that there is what type of injury?
Generally an axial load with some degree of cervical flexion. Etiology for?
Neck point tenderness, restricted ROM, cervical muscle spasm, cervical pain, pain in chest and extremities, numbness in trunk or limbs and loss of bladder and bowel control are signs of?
What type of fracture usually results from trunk hyperflexion, falling from a height, or a direct blow?
______ fractures will require x-rays for detection.
Brachial plexus neuropraxia is aka?
Result of stretching or compressing the brachial plexus so it disrupts peripheral nerve function without degenerative changes.
brachial plexus neuropraxia (burners)
What usually happens when your arm is extended and your neck gets turned away (compression with rotation)?
burners (brachial plexus neuropraxia) - can result in loss of motion
______ refers to degeneration of the vertebrae due to congenital weakness (stress fracture result)
Fracture and anterior glide - gymnasts and football players are most common to get this injury.
Pain and persistent aching in the low back, stiffness, constant need to change position. Etiology for?