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Pulmonary ventilation

Aka breathing. Tide like movement of air into and out of lungs so that gases in the alveoli are continuously changed and refreshed

1

External respiration

The gas exchange between the blood and the air filled chambers of the lungs. (Oxygen loading and carbon dioxide unloading)

2

Internal respiration

Exchange of gases between systematic blood and tissue cells (oxygen unloading and carbon dioxide loading)

3

Cardiac notch

Concavity on medial surface of the left lung, it accommodates the heart where it extends left from the body midline

4

Parietal pleura

Outer layer made of a double layered sac of serous membrane that is attached to the thoracic walls and the diaphragm

5

Visceral pleura

Inner layer of pleura covering the lung tissue.

6

Alimentary canal

Hollow tube extending from the mouth to the anus, many accessory thanks of glands empty their secretions here.

7

Digestion

Food broken down physically and chemically into its smaller diffusible molecules

8

Adsorption

The digested end products pass through the epithelial cells lining the tract into the blood for distribution to the body cells

9

Accessory digestive organ

Teeth- physically break down food, salivary glands, gallbladder, liver, and pancreas- which secrete products into alimentary canal

10

Bile

No enzymatic action, but emulsifies fats by breaking up large fat particles into smaller ones, which creates a larger surface area to improve the efficiency of the enzyme lipase

11

Pulmonary circulation

System that brings blood to the lungs and back

12

Systemic circulation

Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body

13

Foramen ovale

In fetus, opening that allows blood to be shunted from the right atrium to the left atrium. Becomes the fossa ovalis after birth

14

Ductus arteriosus

In fetus, short vessel that connects the pulmonary trunk and the aorta. This collapses after birth and becomes the ligamentum arteriosum

15

Hepatic portal circulation

Blood vessels of hepatic portal circulation that drains digestive viscera, spleen, and pancreas and deliver blood to be processed in liver. Liver processes and filters and then drains.