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Flashcards in (3) Lecture Exam Deck (66):

pathway of large intestine

ileocecal sphincter, cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, rectum, anal canal


functions of liver (11)

emulsification, absorption, and metabolism of fats, carbohydrate (to bloodstream or storage) and protein (deamination) metabolism, processing of drugs/hormones, excretion of bilirubin into bile, synthesis of bile salts for small intest, storage (glycogen, vitamins, and iron/copper), phagocytosis (by Kupffer cells), activation of vit D


locations of salivary gland pairs

parotid glands (anterior to ears), submandibular glands (under mandible), sublingual glands (under tongue)


types of peritoneum (7)

parietal (lines abdominopelvic wall), visceral (aka serosa, liens organs), greater omentum (fatty apron over intestines), lesser omentum (divides stomach from liver), falciform ligament (suspends liver from diaphragm and ant. wall), mesentery (fan shaped and binds jejunum to ileum to post. wall), and mesocolon (holds colon to post. wall)


accessory organs of the digestive system (6)

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladde


lobes of liver (4)

left and right lobes separated by falciform ligament, quadrate lobe is next to the gallbladder and inferior to the caudal lobe


muscles of the stomach

oblique (inner layer, pushes downwards), circular layer (middle, squeezes), longitudinal layer (outer, pushes downwards)


regions/anatomy of stomach

cardiac (entry point), fundus (top portion), body, pylorus (pyloric antrum, canal, sphincter), lesser curvature (top, contacting liver), greater curvature (bottom, connected to omentum)


structures of a tooth

enamel (outermost covering), dentin (deep to enamel), crown (top of tooth), neck (leads into gum), gingivae (gum line), roots (canal holds blood vessels and nerves), periodontal ligament (holds tooth in areas called cementum)


functions of the digestive system

ingestion, secretion (saliva, bile, HCl, amylase, etc), mixing/propulsion, absorption (occurs in small intestine), defecation


functions of pancreas

secretion of pancreatic juice: water, salts, sodium bicarbonate (slightly alkaline to neutralize HCl and stop action of pepsin), pancreatic amylase (digests starch), protein digesting amylase (trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase), and triglyceride digesting enzymes (pancreated lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease)


structures of large intestine (7)

ileocecal sphincter, cecum, ascending, transcending, descending, rectum, anal canal


alimentary canal (6)

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines


accessory digestive organs (6)

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder


location of digestion

physical breakdown of food, begins in mouth (esp. starch) and mostly occurs in the stomach and small intestine


location of absorption

nutrients taken from food in the small intestine


components of mouth

cheek = buccinator muscles and CT covered by skin/ mucous membrane, lips w/labial frenulum, tongue w/lingual frenulum, oral vestibule (space b/w lips and teeth), hard & soft palates, uvula, fauces (opening b/w oral cavity and oropharynx


movement of small intestine

segmentations (localized contractions to mix chyme with digestive juices and contact mucosa) and peristalsis


the most stressed area of the digestive system

small intestine - receives from stomach, liver, and gallbladder


movement of large intestine

`churning (mixing w/in haustra to maximize water reabsorption) and mass peristalsis to move waste into rectum


functions of the gallbladder

stores, concentrates, and delivers bile into the duodenum via the common bile duct


function of bile

bile salts aid in the emulsification of fats and the absorption of digested lipids


portal lobule

responsible for bile secretion


portal triad

bile duct, branch of hepatic artery, branch of hepatic portal vein


location of head of pancreas

nestled next to the duodenum


gastric juice

the combined secretions of mucus neck, chief, and parietal cells (2-3L/day), turns bolus to chyme in the stomach


glucose storage

excess glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen until released to stabilize blood sugar


submucosal plexus

sensory and motor ENS neurons/fibers that innervate the submucosa to regulate movement of mucosa and vasoconstriction of blood vessels


secretory cells

in the submucosa to control the secretions (digestive enzymes and mucus) of the GI tract


permanent vs. deciduous

32 grown up teeth & 20 baby teeth


functions of stomach enzymes

break down of proteins and carbohydrates and some break down of fats to turn bolus to chyme


stomach enzymes (7)

gastric juice = gastrin + HCl + intrinsic factor + gastric lipase + pepsinogen + mucus


pancreatic enzymes (8)

pancreatic juice = sodium bicarbonate + pancreatic amylase + trypsin + chymotrypsin + carboxypeptidase + pancreatic lipase + ribonuclease + deoxyribonuclease


small intestine enzymes (9)

intestinal juice = lysozyme + a-dextrinase + maltase + sucrase + lactase + aminopeptidase + dipeptidase + nucleosidases + phosphatases


beginning and end of carbohydrate digestion

starts in mouth with salivary amylase, continues in stomach, ends in small intestine with lactase/maltase/sucrase/a-dextrinase


beginning and end of protein digestion

begins in the stomach with pepsin and ends in the small intestine with aminopeptidase and dipeptidase


order of layers of the gastrointestinal tract

(deep to superficial)

mucosa (epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae), submucosa, muscularis (circular, longitudinal)

stomach has an oblique layer - an extra inner muscularis layer



tiny hair-like structures unique to the vili of the small intestines that function to increase surface area for absorption and also release the brush-border enzymes (for digesting carbs, proteins, and nucleotides)


secretion of bile

hepatocytes (liver cells which are specialized epithelium)


location of hemo/hematopoiesis

bone marrow of axial skeleton. stem cells are formed and divide into mature cells withing marrow (except lympoid stem cells, which divide into lymphocytes elsewhere). Pluripotent stem cells - derived from mesenchyme; myeloid - forms RBC, platelets, monocytes, and granular leukocytes.


functions of blood (3)

transportation (oxygen from lungs to tissues, nutrients from GI tract, hormones from endocrine glands, removal of wastes), regulation (homeostasis of body fluids, acts as buffer for pH to be 7.4, body temp), protection (clotting to prevent excessive loss, WBC defense, blood proteins like antbodies)


erythrocyte lifespan

120 weeks/4 months. erythropoeises produces proerythroblasts (nucleus) which mature to reticulocytes (no nucleus and biconcave shaped); dead RBCs are removed by phagocytic macrophages of the spleen and liver



having reduced oxygen carrying capacity. you might have abnormal cell components, not enough iron in your body, destruction of RBCs or marrow, or excessive RBC loss due to bleeding.


pernicious anemia

insufficient hemapoeises means the stomach won't produce enough intrinsic factor and the small intestines can't absorb enough B12 (needed for RBC production)


megaloblastic anemia

red bone marrow produces abnormally large RBCs which are less efficient at transportation


functions and characteristics of WBC's (5) listed in decreasing presence in blood

neutrophils (bacterial infections; multi-lobed nucleus), lymphocytes (viral infections, some leukemias; large, round nucleus), monocytes (phagocytic macrophages for TB, some viruses/fungi/leukemias; kidney/horseshoe shaped nucleus), eosinophils (allergic reaction, parasic worms, autoimmune; red/orange granules), basophils (histamine release, some leukemias/cancers; blue/purple granules)  


granular vs. agranular WBCs

granular = eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils. agranular = lymphocytes, monocytes


WBCs and immune response (8 infections/conditions)

 bacteria = neutrophils; parasites = eosinphils; leukemia = basophils/lymphocytes/monocytes; allergies = eosinophils; inflammatory allergies = basophils, cancers = basophils; virus = monocytes/lymphocytes; fungi = monocytes; chronic diseases like TB = monocytes


Principle Functions of Respiratory System 

Gas transport and gas exchange.

Others: regulating blood pH, filters inhaled air, produces sounds, rids body of small amounts of water and heat in exhaled air



tissue that lines trachea

solid C-shaped cartilage rings that provide a semi-rigid support and smooth muscle


medullary rhythmicity


Upper respiratory 


cartilages of nose (be able to identify in pic)


Type 1 Alveolar Cells

forms continuous lining of the alveolar wall; main site of gas exchange (most important, cells that form the site of gas exchange)


Type 2 Alveolar Cells

Also called septal cells – fewer than type I; consists of microvilli and secrete alveolar fluid (main function is to secrete alveolar fluid, fluid allows for gas exchange)


Right Lung

Oblique and horizontal fissure, 3 lobes. Hilus located on left and right lungs. 


Left lung

only 2 lobes, heart sits posteriorly to lungs at cardiac notch. Contains oblique fissure and hilus. Oblique fissure in the left lung separates superior lobe from inferior lobe 


characteristics of normal exhalation


Muscles of inspiration

synergist: sternocleidomastoid and scalenes

antagonists: external intercostals 

prime mover: diaphraghm 


muscles of expiration 

relaxation of the external intercostals, which moves ribs inferiorly, which relaxes the diaphragm (internal intercostals, 




Order of oxygen and carbon dioxide as it travels through the respiratory membrane

the respiratory membrane extends from the alveolar air space to blood plasma and consists or 4 layers: 

1. alveolar wall: a layer of type I and type II alveolar cells and associated alveolar macrophages

2. epithelial basement membrane: underlying alveolar wall 

3. capillary basement membrane: fused to epithelial basement membrane

4: endothelial cells: of capillary wall



branches of respiratory tract from trachea onward

(bethany please check accuracy)

trachea--> bronchus--> bronchi--> segmented bronchi--> lobule--> terminal bronchioles--> respiratory bronchioles--> alveolar ducts--> alveolar sacs--> alveoli


respiratory zone

area of respiratory zone that is involved with gas exchange. 


areas of respiratory system involved with gas exchange


respiration control centers in brain

neurons in the medullary respiratory center in the medulla oblangota plus the pontine respiratory group in the pons