Flashcards in 3. Pharm Basics Deck (60)
What drug regenerates acetylcholinesterases after organophosphate poisoning?
Which anticholinesterases are used in the treatment of Alzheimer disease? (3)
Which of the muscarinic antagonists can be used to improve FEV1 in a patient with COPD? (2)
What anticholinergics are used in the treatment of urge-type urinary incontinence? (4)
3. darifenacin, solifenacin
On The Darn Toilet
In what patient populations is atropine contraindicated? (5)
1. BPH (alrdy have problems with urinary retention)
3. acute angle glaucoma
4. elderly (delirium)
5. GI obstruction/ ileus
What medications have anticholinergic side effects? (4)
1. first generation H1 blockers (ex. diphenhydramine)
4. amantadine (anti-parkinson)
Which receptors are stimulated by clonidine?
Which receptors are stimulated by dopamine?
low --> dopamine receptor
med --> B1, B2
high --> a1, a2
Which receptors are stimulated by phenylephrine
a1 > a2
Which receptors are stimulated by albuterol
b2 > b1
Which receptors are stimulated by NE
a1 > a2 > b1
Which receptors are stimulated by isoproterenol
b1 = b2
Which receptors are stimulated by epi
b1, b2, a1, a2
Which receptors are stimulated by dobutamine
b1 > b2
Which receptors are stimulated by terbutaline
b2 > b1
Which sympathomimetic is given as a nebulizer for asthma?
- albuterol, levalbuterol
Which sympathomimetic is drug of choice for anaphylaxis?
Which sympathomimetic is the most common first line agent for pts in septic shock
Which sympathomimetic is given subQ for asthma?
- also used for tocolysis (decreasing uterine tone)
Which sympathomimetic is used by ENT to vasoconstrict nasal vessels?
Which selective a-blocker has less effect on blood pressure?
(selective for alpha-1A,D which is just on prostate. doesn't affect vascular alpha-1B receptor)
What are the common side effects of b-blockers? (3)
which pt population should use caution when taking b-blockers?
1. bronchospasm (asthma, COPD) - esp with non-selective b-blockers (which can block b2 --> bronchoconstriction)
2. lower blood glucose (diabetics; may mask symptoms of hypoglycemia)
3. brady, AV block (careful w/ CHF)
Which 3 enzymes are required to convert phenylalanie to dopamine?
- phenylalanine hydroxylase (low in PKU)
- tyrosine hydroxylase
- dopamine decarboxylase
A patient develops paralysis after being bitten by a black widow spider. Is this a spastic or flaccid paralysis? What other autonomic symptoms might be seen?
- spastic [stimulates release of ACh at NMJ]
- salivation, diaphoresis, lacrimation (excess ACh)
what substances inhibit the reuptake of NE? (2)
What substances stimulate the release of NE from neurons? (4)
calcium (normal release)
Outline the pathway by which stimulation of a Gs receptor activates protein kinase A
Gs --> adenylyl cyclase --> converts ATP to cAMP --> PKA
What effect will a reversible competitive antagonist have on Vmax and Km?
Vmax unchanged (no change in efficacy)
Km increased (decreased potency)
Drug A has therapeutic index of 10:1 while drug B has TI of 2:1. Which drug would be considered safer?