3 Physical Landscapes (river keywords) Flashcards Preview

GCSE Geography > 3 Physical Landscapes (river keywords) > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3 Physical Landscapes (river keywords) Deck (36):
1

Abrasion

The erosion of a surface caused by rock carried by the river scraping off the river bed.

2

Attrition

Process where rocks and stones move along in the water and get knocked into one another and are gradually worn away into smaller rounded pieces.

3

Cross Profile

Side-to-side cross section of a river.

4

Discharge

The quantity of water that passes a given point on a stream or river bank with a given period of time.

5

Erosion

To wear away rock.

6

Hydraulic Action

The force of the river against the banks can cause air to be trapped in cracks and crevices. The pressure weakens the banks and gradually wears it away.

7

Lateral Erosion

Sideways erosion by a river on the outside of a meander channel. It eventually leads to the widening of the valley and contributes to the formation of a floodplain.

8

Mouth

The end of a river. Usually where it meets the sea.

9

Saltation

Particles bouncing down the river bed.

10

Solution

Soluble particles dissolved into the river.

11

Source

The start of the river.

12

Suspension

Fine, solid material held in the water while the water is moving.

13

Traction

The rolling of boulders and pebbles along the river bed.

14

Transportation

River picks up and carries material as they flow downstream.

15

Tributary

A stream or river that flows into a larger stream or river.

16

Vertical Erosion

As the river flows downhill, it uses energy to overcomes friction which causes the river to erode downwards.

17

Deposition

When the water loses energy, it drops the rock particles down the stream or on the river bank.

18

Long Profile

The gradient of a river from source to its mouth.

19

Meander

A bend in a river.

20

Relief

A term used to describe the shape of land.

21

Drainage Basin

An area of land that is draining a river and its tributaries.

22

Floodplain

Flat areas that flood.

23

Levee

Natural embankments along the edges of a river channel.

24

Estuary

Tidal areas where the river meets the sea (mouth).

25

Hard Engineering

Man-made structures built to control the flow of rivers and reduce flooding.

26

Soft Engineering

Schemes set up using knowledge of a river and it’s processes to reduce the effects of flooding.

27

Flood relief channels

Hard Engineering
Channels are built that divert water around important areas.

28

Dams and reservoirs

Hard Engineering
Huge walls built across rivers usually in the upper course.

29

Channel straightening

Hard Engineering
River course straightened, artificially straight channels.

30

Embankments

Hard Engineering
Raised walls built along river banks.

31

Planting trees

Soft Engineering

32

River restoration

Soft Engineering
Making the river more natural.

33

Flood plain zoning

Soft Engineering
Prevent building on floodplains.

34

Flood warnings

Soft Engineering
Warnings via (e.g.) TV.

35

Preparation

Soft Engineering
Modified buildings.

36

River bluff

Area of slightly higher land along the edge of the floodplain.