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Flashcards in 3- Theories about Stuttering Deck (26):
1

What does Guitar say is the two-stage model of stuttering?

1) PRIMARY STAGE: simple disfluencies based on how the brain handles speech & language production
2) SECONDARY STAGE: more complex interaction of the child's environment and reaction to disfluencies

2

Describe the primary stage evidence.

- stuttering often emerges from deficits in left help problems
- deficits can result in primary stuttering because the neural circuitry is working in an underdeveloped area
- moved to an area not suited for rapid speech

3

Describe the secondary stage evidence.

- some children with stutters have more reactive temperaments
- respond to unpleasant stimuli by increasing tension, speeding up, escaping or avoiding
- causes emotional arousal, leads to deeper learning

4

What are the 5 types of assessments for fluency?

1) Frequency
2) Type
3) Duration
4) Secondary Behaviours
5) Severity

5

Describe assessment of frequency.

- percentage of syllables stuttered
- each syllable can only be stuttered once
- count obvious avoidance as a stutter

6

Describe assessment by type

- If child have >50% stutter-like disfluencies, more likely to be stuttering
- E.g. part-word, prolongations, blocks, avoidances

7

Describe assessment of duration.

Average the duration of the longest 3 stutters.

8

Describe assessment fo secondary behaviour.

Differentiate escape and avoidance.

9

Describe assessment of severity.

More subjective, captures the listener experience. Good for measuring progress in treatments to reduce abnormality of stuttering.

10

Talk about speech samples in stuttering.

Need to make sure the speech sample is representative, by obtaining 2 samples, one in clinic and one..

1) PRESCHOOL: at home
2) SCHOOL: school/home
3) ADO: work/home

11

Describe an assessment for Preschoolers.

1) PRE-ASSESSMENT:
- child's responses and emotions
- parental concerns and expectations
- lagnauge/artic/voice in tact?

2) ASSESSMENT
- get video of child speaking spontaneously at home
- in clinic parent-child interaction
- in clinic clinician-child interaction

12

Describe an assessment for School Age children

1) PRE-ASSESSMENT:
- child's responses and emotions
- parental awareness
-how stutter affects child at school/home

2) ASSESSMENT
- interview with parent
- interview with teacher
- classroom observation
- interview with child

13

Describe an assessment for teens and adults.

1) PRE-ASSESSMENT:
- individual attitudes
- recordings of stuttering outside the clinic

2) ASSESSMENT:
- interview with family
- interview with client (open ended Qs)

3) TRIAL THERAPY
- stuttering modification
- fluency shaping

14

What are treatment goals for all ages of stutterers?

1) Reduce frequency of stuttering (w/o creating secondaries)
2) Reduce abnormality of stuttering
3) Reduce negative feelings, thoughts and attitudes
4) Reduce avoidance
5) Create fluency-facilitating envionrmnet
6) Reduce negative emotions
7) Reduce negative thoughts and attitudes

15

What are the 2 major camps of treatment?

1) STUTTERING MODIFICATION: reduce abnormality of the stutter, goal is to stutter easier
2) FLUENCY SHAPING: reduce the frequency of the stutter, goal is to stutter less

16

What is the sequence of therapy?

1) Explore stuttering
2) Make stuttering easy
3) Learn super fluency
4) Use superfluency

17

What is exploring stuttering?

The first step in the sequence of stuttering therapy.

Explore the child's beliefs, core behaviours, secondary behaviours, thoughts and feelings

18

What is making stuttering easy?

Second step of the sequence of stuttering therapy, aim is stuttering modification. Teaches "CANCELLATION (back up)" and "PULL OUT"

19

What is cancellation?

Stuttering modification technique also known as "back up".

Decrease the tension after the stutter but before the next word. Increase the control & desensitize.

20

What is pull out?

Stuttering modification technique.

Recognize the stutter and catch it, reduce the tension and continue the word

21

What is learning super fluency?

The idea of fluency shaping, teaches SLOW/FLEXIBLE RATE, PAUSING and EASY ONSET

22

What is slow rate?

Superfluency technique also known as flexible rate or slow-mo/

Speak slightly slower but not at an unnatural rate.

23

What is pausing?

Superfluency technique

Speak in natural phrases with pauses at appropriate times

24

What is easy onset

Superfluency technique also known as E-Os

Beginning a word with reduced tension

25

What is using super fluency?

Start in therapy then extend to the real world

26

How can you desensitize a child to disruptions?

- find problem areas/tasks
- role play disruptions while maintaining fluency
- help child learn that fear & mistakes are ok
- lots of practice on feared words
- work on child's acceptance of stuttering
- help child respond to teasers (SO?!)
- help child find support in others