What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?
What does the loop of Henle include?
Proximal straight tubule, descending thin limb, ascending thin limb, ascending thick limb, post macular segment
what is the equation for single nephron glomerular filtration rate?
SNGFR=Kf ( deltaP - [pi] )
T/F: The urine is iso-osmotic with blood in the distal convoluted tubule.
F; it is iso-osmotic in the proximal tubule
where does most of the potassium reabsorption take place?
what percentage of Na, H2O, and bicarb is absorbed in the prozimal tubule?
what substances are actively secreted into the urine in the proximal tubule?
organic acids and bases
what is the driving force for transport in the proximal tubule?
Na/K ATPase in the basolateral membrane
For both kidneys, about how much fluid do both kidneys filter out of the blood in a minute? How much urine do they produce in a minute?
120ml/minute filtered out; 1 ml/minute urine
what percentage of total body energy does reabsorption in the kidneys require?
Specialized epithelial cells at the distal end of the ascending thick limb are called _____.
What does the macula sense?
What do the cells of the macula do if they sense that NaCl concentration is too high? what is this process called?
send a signal to the afferent arteriole to redule blood flow; tubuloglomerular feedback
T/F: K diuresis is self limiting due to tubuloglomerular feedback
F, Na diuresis
is urine, hypo, iso, or hypertonic in the DCT?
T/F: the DCT transports both wather and NaCl
which area of the nephron is the diluting segment?
Where does urea leave the nepron?
distal collecting duct only
what is a diuretic?
drug that increases solute
what is an aquaretic?
something that increases excretion of water but not of solutes (dilutes urine)
what is a natriuretic?
what is a saluretic?
something that increases the excretion of NaCl
What is a Kaliuretic?
something that increases excretion of potassium