30.3 and 30.4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 30.3 and 30.4 Deck (20):
1

mechanical digestion

physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces

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chemical digestion

process by which enzymes break down food into small molecules that the body can use

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amylase

enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches

4

esophagus

tube connecting the mouth to the stomach

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peristalsis

contractions of smooth muscles that provide the force that moves food through the esophagus towards the stomach

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stomach

large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food

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pepsin

enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller polypeptide fragments

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chyme

mixture of enzymes and partially-digested food

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small intestine

digestive organ in which most chemical digestion and absorption of food takes place

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villus

fingerlike projection in the small intestine that aid in the absorption of nutrient molecules

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large intestine

organ in the digestive system that removes water from the undigested material that passes through it; also called colon

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excretion

process by which metabolic wastes are eliminated from the body

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ureter

tube that carries urine from a kidney to the urinary bladder

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urethra

tube through which urine leaves the body

15

nephron

blood-filtering structure in the kidneys in which impurities are filtered out, wastes are collected, and purified blood is returned to the circulation

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filtration

process of passing a liquid or gas through a filter to remove wastes

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glomerulus

small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of the nephron; where filtration of the blood takes place

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Bowman's capsule

cuplike structure that encases the glomerulus; collects filtrate from the blood

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reabsorption

process by which water and dissolved substances are taken back into the blood

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loop of Henle

section of the nephron tubule that is responsible for conserving water and minimizing the volume of the filtrate