303 FINAL EXAM--(WELLNESS) Flashcards Preview

4TH SEMESTER > 303 FINAL EXAM--(WELLNESS) > Flashcards

Flashcards in 303 FINAL EXAM--(WELLNESS) Deck (133):
1

state of physical, mental, spiritual, and social functioning that realizes a person’s potential & is experienced with a developmental context.

Health-

2

precedes disease or dysfunction.

Primary Prevention-

3

s therapeutic in that is includes health as beneficial to well-being, it uses therapeutic treatments, and, as a process of behavior towards enhancing health, it involves symptom identification when teaching stress reduction techniques. Also include advocating for policies that promote the health of the community and electing public officials who will enact legislation that protects the health of the public.

Primary Prevention-

4

primary prevention includes:

health promotion & specific protection (immunization)

5

ranges from providing screening activities and treating early stages of disease to limiting disability by averting or delaying the consequences of advanced disease.

Secondary Prevention

6

_____ is secondary prevention because the principal goal is to identify individuals in an early, detectable stage of the dx process.

screening

7

occurs when a defect or disability is permanent and irreversible. The process involves minimizing the effects of disease and disability by surveillance and maintenance actives aimed at preventing complications and deterioration.

Tertiary Prevention-

8

nce and maintenance actives aimed at preventing complications and deterioration. Focuses on rehabilitation to help people attain and retain an optimal level of functioning regardless of their disabling condition. The objective is to return the affected individual to a useful place in society, maximize remaining capacities, or both.

Tertiary Prevention-

9

roles of the nurse

advocate
care manager
consultant
deliverer of services
educator
healer
researcher

10

elp individuals obtain what they are entitled to receive through the health care system, try to make the system more responsive to individual and community needs, and help persons develop the skills to advocate for themselves.

Advocate-

11

revent duplication of services, maintain quality and safety, and reduce costs.

Care Manager

12

provide knowledge about health promotion and disease prevention to individuals and groups as a consultant.

Consultant

13

he core role of the nurse is the delivery of direct services such as health education, flu shots, and counseling in health promotion.

Deliverer of Services-

14

Health practices in the US are derived from the theory that health components, such as good nutrition, industrial and highway safety, immunization, and specific drug therapy should be within the grasp of the total population.

Educator

15

this role requires the nurse to help individuals integrate and balance the various parts of their lives.

Healer

16

to provide optimum health care, nurses need to use evidenced-based findings as their foundation for clinical decision making. (evidenced-based practice)

Researcher

17

characteristics of the therapeutic relationship

1. purposeful communication
2. rapport
3. trust
4. empathy
5. goal direction

18

the nurse focuses communication toward a particular goal.

Purposeful Communication

19

harmony and affinity between people in a relationship.

Rapport

20

is a necessary component of any helping relationship. It is the reliance on a person to carry out responsibilities and promises, based on a sense of safety, honesty, and reliability.

Trust

21

the ability to understand another’s feelings without loosing personal identity and perspective.

Empathy

22

a helping relationship is special in its goal-directed nature.

Goal direction

23

factors in effective communication

1. flexibility
2. silence
3. humor
4. touch
5. space

24

balance between control and permissiveness.

Flexibility

25

allows individual to reflect on what is being discussed or experienced

Silence-

26

relieves tension, reduces aggression, and creates a climate of sharing.

Humor-

27

interesting means of non-verbal communication for nurses, who often touch individuals while administering care.

Touch

28

varies according to the type of communication, the setting, and the culture.

Space

29

transmission of messages using words, spoken or written.

Verbal Communication

30

encompasses all messages that are not spoken or written. The channels this are all 5 senses.

Non-verbal communication

31

provides foundation for the construction of the NANDA-I nursing diagnosis nomenclature.

Gordon’s functional health pattern framework

32

Functional health patterns view the individual as a whole being using interrelated behavioral areas. The typology of 11 patterns serves a useful tool to collect and organize assessment data and to create a structure for validation and communication among health care providers.

Gordon’s functional health pattern framework

33

Gordon's five area's of focus

Pattern
Individual-Environmental
Age-Developmental
Functional
Cultural

34

implies that the nurse explores patterns or sequences of behavior over time.

Pattern Focus

35

Food intake examples illustrate this. Reference to environmental influence occurs within many patterns in the form of physical environments within and external to the individual.

Individual-environmental

36

(human growth). As individuals fulfill developmental tasks complexity increases

Age-developmental focus

37

an individuals performance level.

Functional focus

38

delivered with knowledge of and sensitivity to cultural factors influencing health behavior.

Cultural focus:

39

centers on activity level, exercise program, and leisure activities. Parameters include movement capability, activity tolerance, self-care abilities, use of assistive devices, changes in pattern, satisfaction with activity and exercise patterns, and any perceived problems.


Activity exercise pattern of the individual

40

involves individuals’ health status and health practices used to reach the current level of health or wellness with a focus on perceived health status and meaning of health.


Health perception health management pattern of the individual

41

-is a two-leveled process that includes the family as a group and the interactions among family members.

-The entire family is viewed as the care recipient that guides assessment from a holistic framework.

-Home is a natural environment for health-promotion encounters, although the process may occur in other settings as well.

The nursing process with families

42

Nurse’s role in health promotion of the family

-Become aware of family attitudes and behaviors toward health promotion and disease prevention.

-Act as a role model for the family.

-Collaborate with the family to assess, improve, enhance, and evaluate family health practices.

-Assist the family in growth and development behaviors.

-Assist the family in identifying risk-taking behaviors.

-Assist the family in decision making about lifestyle choices.

-Provide reinforcement for positive health-behavior practices.

-Provide health information to the family.

-Assist the family in learning behaviors to promote health and prevent disease.

-Assist the family in problem-solving and decision-making about health promotion.

-Serve as a liaison for referral or collaboration between community resources and the family.

43

refers to the level of priority assigned to the disease as a public health concern.

Significance of a disease

44

significance generally is determined by

incidence and prevalence

and the quantity and quality of life affected by the disorder

45

rate of a new population problem and estimates the risk of an individual developing the specific dx or condition during a specific period or over a lifetime

Incidence

46

proportion of a given population with the best estimate of whether a person is likely to become ill during a specific period of time.

Prevalence:

47

he variables that aid in a screening instrument’s evaluation include

reliability, validity, and reproducibility,

48

an assessment of the reproducibility of the test’s results when different individuals with the same level of skill perform the test during different periods and under different conditions.

Reliability

49

accuracy or truthfulness of the test or instrument itself.

Validity-

50

highly recommended in high-risk persons—those who have injected steroids or drugs, those who have unprotected sex, and those diagnosed with other STIs or comorbidites. To protect individual identities, consumer-controlled home screening kits are available. (OraQuick).

HIV screening

51

involves not only providing relevant information but also facilitating health related behavior change. Nurses usually function as health care coordinators for individuals in their care.

Nursing and health education

52

the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.”

Health literacy

53

includes the ability to read, write, speak, listen, compute, and comprehend, and to apply those skills to health situations.

Health literacy

54

any activities that an individual undertakes to enhance health, prevent dx, and detect and control the symptoms of a disease.

Health behaviors

55

-paradigm used to predict and explain health behavior.

-Was developed to describe why people failed to participate in programs to detect or prevent disease.

-Also explains responses to symptoms, disease, prescribed treatments, and potential health problems.

Health Belief Model

56

another model that adds to the understanding of the determinants of health behavior. Bandura emphasizes the influence of self-efficacy on health behavior

Social Cognitive Theory

57

efers to an individual’s belief in being personally capable of performing the behavior required to influence one’s own health.

Self Efficacy

58

useful for determining where a person is in relation to making a behavior change. It’s useful in determining the person’s readiness for learning in relation to changing a behavior so that health education or behavior change interventions can be matched to the stage. Self-efficacy is a key construct in this model.

Transtheoretical Model of Change (Stages of Change Model)

59

-the process of discovering characteristics or risk factors that are known to be associated with dietary or nutrition problems.

-Its primary purpose is to identify individuals who are potentially at high risk from complex and involved problems that relate to nutrition.

Nutrition screening

60

people over the age of 2 years adopt a well-balanced diet, achieve and maintain healthy body weight, and reach optimal levels for cholesterol, HDL, LDL, blood pressure, and blood glucose.

Heart disease

61

pre HTN

120-139/80-89

62

contributed to the deaths of approximately 348,000 americans out of 2.4 million people.

HTN

63

a helpful indicator of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity.

BMI

64

underweight BMI

65

healthy weight

18.5-24.9

66

overweight

25-29.9

67

obese

68

how to calculate BMI

weight in kg/height in inches/height in inches x 703

69

closely resemble the effects of physical inactivity. The list for both aging and inactivity includes an increase in body fat and a decrease in all of the following: aerobic capacity, muscle mass, metabolic rate, strength and flexibility, bone mass, sexual function, mental performance, immune function, and sleep quality.

Aging

70

____ ____ should be more active and be concerned about their nutritional habits

older people

71

coronary heart dx decreases as what increases?

physical activity

72

how often should you work out?

3-5 days a week aerobic exercise 20-60 minutes

73

any psychological, social, environmental, physiological, or spiritual stimulus that disrupts homeostasis, thereby requiring change or adaptation.

Stressor

74

is a state of threatened homeostasis that triggers an array of adaptive physiological and behavioral responses in an effort to reestablish homeostasis.

Stress

75

challenging and useful

Eustress

76

when stress becomes chronic or excessive, the body is unable to adapt and maintain homeostasis.

Distress-

77

Interventions that reduce the _____ response are an important component of comprehensive disease prevention and management.

stress

78

- beneficial to people across a broad spectrum of chronological, gender, cultural, and ethnic characteristics.

Stress management interventions-

79

In response to stress, people can feel disconnected from life’s meaning and purpose, which in turn affects.....

spiritual health and well-being

80

Meeting ____needs may be facilitated by spiritual practice or activities that help people find meaning, purpose, and connection.

spiritual

81

“all nursing that has healing the whole person as its goal and integrates complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches into clinical practice.

Holistic nursing-

82

focuses on identifying diseases and conditions by a physician or other midlevel provider and using drugs and surgery to treat bacteria and other ailments.

Allopathic

83

Each stage depends on the preceding stage, which must be accomplished successfully for the person to proceed.

Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development-

84

Described the development of identity of the self through successive stages that unfold throughout the life span.

Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development-

85

It is based on the need of each person to develop a sense of trust in self and others and a sense of personal worth.

Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development-

86

It describes a perfect personality in positive terms, not merely through the absence of dx.

Erikson’s


Theory of Psychosocial Development-

87

Concerned primarily with structure rather than content, with how the mind works rather than with what it does.

Piaget’s


Theory of Cognitive Development

88

Uses the word “scheme” to describe a pattern of action or thought.

Piaget’s


Theory of Cognitive Development

89

Each person is striving to maintain a balance, or equilibrium, between assimilation and accommodation.

Piaget’s


Theory of Cognitive Development

90

-Sensorimotor: (birth to 2 years)

-Pre-operational: (2-7 years)

-Concrete Operations: (7 to 11 years)

-Formal Operations: (11-15 years)

Piaget’s


Theory of Cognitive Development

91

One aspect of cognitive development is the development of moral thinking and judgement.

Kohlberg’s


Theory of Moral Development:

92

Based on interviews that focused on hypothetical moral dilemmas such as “should a man steal an expensive drug that would save his dying wife?”

Kohlberg’s


Theory of Moral Development:

93

Preconventional
conventional
postconventional

Kohlberg's

94

avoiding punishment, gaining reward, & gaining approval.

Preconventional

95

Gaining approval, avoiding disapproval.

Conventional

96

agreeing upon rights, establishing personal moral standards, & achieving justice.

Postconventional:

97

lasts from the onset of true labor contractions to complete dilation of the cervix. Latent (0-3 cm dilation); active (4-7 cm dilation); and transition (8-10cm dilation).

Dilation Stage-

98

lasts from complete dilation (10 cm) of the cervix to birth

Pushing Stage-

99

asts from the time of birth of the new born to delivery of the placenta and membranes, which range from 2-15 minute

Placental Stage-

100

defined as the first 4 hours after child birth where physiological and psychological adjustments begin to occur.

Recovery Stage-

101

Presumptive signs of pregnancy

breast changes
fatigue
urinary frequency
N/V
amenorrhea
quickening

102

probable signs of pregnancy

enlargement of uterus

softerning of uterine isthmus (hegar’s sign)

bluish color of cervis and upper vagina

softening of the cervix

ballottement of the fetus

positive test for hcG

changes in skin pigmentation

103

positive signs of pregnancy

detection of fetal heart tones by auscultation, ultrasonography, or doppler

palpation of fetal body parts

fetal movements visible and detected by examiner

radiological of ultrasonographic demonstration of fetal parts.

104

EDC calculation

LMP + 7 days - 3 months

105

one of several standardized tools that screen for developmental problems in children from birth to 6 years of age.

Denver devleopmental screening test

106

determined by length and weight and is only one factor in assessing health status.

Growth index

107

essential nutrients in infants

Water: 125-150 ml/kg/day in first 6 months. 125-135ml/kg/day after

Protein: 2.2 first 6 months. 2 g after

Fat: 3.8-6 g/kcal

Vitamins and minerals: Vit. D & iron.

108

the perfect food

breast milk

109

introduce solid foods when?

4-6 months (6 is recommended)

110

introducing infant to a cup. 5-6 months.

Weaning:

111

The establishment of the emotional bond between the mother and her infant is known as

attachment.

112

This emotional bond is considered crucial for the optimal physical and emotional development of the infant.

attachment

113

Nurses: need to be aware of potential s/sx of abuse & report when child abuse suspected.

Child abuse in toddlers

114

Activity-exercise pattern of toddler

always busy and exploring
most waking hours at play
limit tv time

115

Elimination pattern of preschooler

independent toiling

guidance: washing hands, flushing toilet

soiling: handle in gentle/encouraging way. Preschooler responsible for changing clothes.

116

preschoolers are in what stage according to piaget?

preoperational stage

117

ability to function symbolically with language

Concrete thought process

Imaginary friends

preschoolers

118

Play= work of the child. mimic others.

imitation play (fantasy)

time orientation: idea past/future. enjoy planning for family activities

limit TV time.

preschoolers

119

Low self esteem parents

victims: increased risk of repeating cycle.

sexual abuse

consider cultural factors in detecting abuse

child abuse in school aged children

120

goal of screenings in school aged children

prevent long term adult organ dx

121

Growth: slower/steadier pace

alternating “spurts” and minimal growth. 2in per year in height & 4.4-6.6lbs

earlier growth in girls

menarche is occurring earlier

school aged children

122

Well balanced diet 1200 to 1800 kcal/day
obesity: BMI >95th percentile or BMI >30
Overweight: BMI >85th but

school aged children

123

girls start 2 years earlier than boys
Menarche (females) late in puberty

Puberty in adolescent

124

Eating disorders

anorexia nervosa

bulimia nevosa

binge eating disorder

overweight and obesity

125

young adults erikson stage

intimacy versus isolation

126

a major goal for ___ ___ is the development of an increased sense of competency and self-esteem.

young adults

127

chemical agents

drug use
alcohol use
tobacco use

128

obesity

high saturated fat diet

calcium

caffeine

high sodium diet

alcohol abuse

oral health

nutritional metabolic pattern of middle adult

129

Erikson’s stages of development of middle adult

generativity vs. stagnation

130

Malnutrition factors: access to food, decline in GI absorption, meatballs, elimination, deterioration of senses, high frequency of detention problems, cultural food preferences.
Nutritional assistance: food stamps, federally supported nutrition programs

Nutritional metabolic pattern of older adult

131

Healthy People 2020 of older adult

promoting quality of life

management of chronic conditions

132

Erikson’s stages of development
for older adults

Ego integrity vs. despair

133

Leading cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults

falls