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Flashcards in 310 EXAM 5 Deck (71):
1

identifies drug’s atomic and molecular structure.

Chemical name

2

assigned by the manufacturer that first develops the drug. (acetomenaphine)

Generic name

3

name by which the drug is identified in official publications USP and NF.

official name

4

brand name copyrighted by the company that sells the drug. TYLENOL

trade name

5

Drug Preparations

oral
topical
injectable
nitro

6

-Capsule, pill, tablet, extended release, elixir, suspension, syrup. through GI tract.

oral

7

Liniment, lotion, ointment, suppository, transdermal patch not on open area, hairy area, or bony area. designed to be rubbed on.

Topical

8

under tongue or on chest

Nitro

9

Mechanisms of drug actions

-drug receptor interaction

-drug enzyme interaction

-acting on cell membrane or altering cellular environment

10

drug interacts with one or more cellular structures to alter cell function.

drug receptor interaction

11

combines with enzymes to achieve desired effect. enzymes want to get drug out of body.

drug enzyme interaction

12

factors affecting drug absorption

-route of administration

-drug solubility

-pH

-local conditions at site of administration

-drug dosage

-serum drug levels

13

1 pound =

2.2 kg

14

drug is transferred from site of entry into bloodstream.

absorption

15

drug is distributed throughout the body.

distribution

16

drug is broken down into an inactive form. Ex: LIVER: alcoholics.

metabolism

17

drug is excreted from the body. Ex: KIDNEYS

excretion

18

Pharmacokinetics (4 things)

absorption
distribution
metabolism
excretion

19

IV pushed drugs are circulated how fast

1 minute

20

Nearly unavoidable secondary drug effect produced at therapeutic doses.

side effect

21

an adverse drug effect cause by excessive drug dosing.

toxicity

22

An immune response to a drug — can be mild to severe.

allergic reaction

23

An uncommon drug response from genetic predisposition. (reaction b/c how they’re built)

idiosyncratic effect

24

Disease produced by a physician or drug.

Iatrogenic disease

25

"Iatros"

physician

26

"genic"

to produce

27

The ability of certain medications and environmental chemicals to cause cancers.

carcinogenic effect

28

Drug induced birth defect.

teratogenic effect

29

chemical capable of causing birth defect.

teratogen

30

difficulty breathing

anaphylactic response

31

Signs and symptoms of drug allergy

Rash
Uticaria
Fever
Diarrhea
Nausea
Vomiting
Anaphylactic reaction

32

causes of medication errors

Human factors
Communication
Name confusion
Packaging
Labeling

33

Ways to reduce medication errors

check before performing doses

34

how to report a medication error

go check on patient then call physician

35

how to check for adverse drug reactions?

-When did symptoms start ?
-Symptoms stop when drug stopped?
-Reappear when drug restarted?
-Illness actual cause of symptoms?
-Other drugs possible cause?

36

how to minimize drug reactions:

anticipate them

individualize drug therapy

37

chronic disorders

HTN
Heart Disease
Epilepsy
Psychosis

38

variables influencing effect of medications

-Developmental considerations
-Weight
-Sex
-Genetic and cultural factors
-Psychological factors
-Pathology
-Environment, timing of administration

39

carried out until cancelled by another order

standing order

40

as needed

PRN

41

carried out immediately

stat order

42

parts of the medication order

-Patient’s name; including middle name
-Date and time order is written
-Name of drug
-Dosage of drug
-Route
-Frequency
-Signature of person writing the order

43

medical record documentation: what do you document?

-each dose of medication
-intentional or inadvertently omitted drugs
-refused drugs
-medication errors

44

7 rights

patient
drug
dose
route
time
to refuse medication
documentation

45

what do you educate your patients about their medications?

-dosage and administration
-how to promote therapeutic effects
-how to minimize adverse effects

46

type of medication errors

-Wrong drug for patient
-Extra, omitted, or wrong doses
-Wrong patient
-Wrong route
-Wrong time
-Incorrect preparation of a drug
-Improper technique when administering drug
-Out-of-date drug

47

3 checks of medication administration. Read the label:

-when the nurse reaches for the container or unit dose package
-immediately before pouring or opening medication
-when replacing the container to the drawer or shelf

48

controlled substance required information:

-Name of patient receiving narcotic
-Amount of narcotic used
-The hour narcotic was given
-The name of physician prescribing narcotic
-Name of the nurse administering narcotic

49

-Narcotics are called

“Schedule Drugs”

50

solid form of oral medications

tablets
capsules
pills

51

liquid form or oral medications

elixirs
spirits
suspensions
syrups

52

administration of oral medications

-oral route
-enteral route
-sublingual administration
-buccal administration

53

NG tubes and PEG tube medication administration:

-ask for liquid form if available
-verify placement and check residual
-follow agency policy and procedures
-flush with water

54

NG tubes and PEG tubes use the?

GI tract

55

injection into subcutaneous tissue--insulin and heparin

Subcutaneous injection

56

muscle tissue injection

Intramuscular injection

57

(under epidermis)--PPDs

Intradermal injection

58

vein

Intravenous injection

59

heart tissue

Intracardial injection

60

peritoneal cavity

Intraperitoneal injection

61

spinal canal

intraspinal injection

62

bone

intraosseous injection

63

sites for intramuscular injections

-ventrogluteal site
-vastus lateralis site
-deltoid muscle site
-dorsogluteal site

64

which site isn't recommend for anyone

dorsogluteal site

65


Criteria for Choosing Equipment for Injections

-Route of administration
-Viscosity of the solution
-Quantity to be administered
-Body size
-Type of medication

66

preparing medications for injection

ampules
vials
prefilled cartridges

67

topical adminstration of medications

Vaginal
Rectal
Instillation
Irrigation
Skin application

68

patient teaching

-Review techniques of medication administration
-Remind patient to take the medication as prescribed for as long as prescribed
-Instruct patient not to alter dosages without consulting physician
-Caution patient not to share medications

69

1 kilogram= _____ grams

1000 grams

70

1 gram = ____ milligrams

1000 milligrams

71

1 milligram = ____ micrograms

1000 micrograms