3.1.2.2 Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides to Polysaccharides Flashcards Preview

SHHS - Science - NEW AQA A-Level Biology (Year 1) > 3.1.2.2 Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides to Polysaccharides > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.1.2.2 Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides to Polysaccharides Deck (48):
1

An individual sugar molecule is called a...

monosaccharide

1

Name a structural polysaccharide

Cellulose (plant cell walls)

2

A 5 carbon sugar is called a...

pentose

2

What happens during hydrolysis

A water molecule is taken in to break down a chain of molecules.

3

Name the type of monosaccharide

Give its formula

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Tetrose

(CH2O)4

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3

Name the type of monosaccharide

Give its formula

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Pentose

(CH2O)5

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4

Name the type of monosaccharide

Give its formula

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Hexose

(CH2O)6

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5

A 4 carbon sugar is called a...

tetrose

5

Polysaccharides are large. This means that they are...

insoluble (will not dissolve)

5

Identify the monosaccharide

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Galactose

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6

When many monosaccharides join together, they form a...

polysaccharide

8

Which elements make up carbohydrates?

Carbon

Hydrogen

Oxygen

9

When 2 monosaccharides join together, they form a...

disaccharide

10

What happens during a condensation reaction?

A water molecule is released from the reacting molecules

11

How many covalent bonds does carbon make?

4

12

Which type of reaction takes place when two monosaccharides join together?

Condensation Reaction

14

Identify the monosaccharide

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α-Glucose

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16

A 3 carbon sugar is called a...

triose

16

A 6 carbon sugar is called a...

hexose

16

Name the bond that forms between two monosaccharides

Glycosidic bond

17

An individual biological molecule is called a...

monomer

18

Which type of reaction takes place when a disaccharide or polysaccharide is broken down?

Hydrolysis

19

Identify the monosaccharide

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Fructose

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20

Name 3 common disaccharides

Maltose (glucose + glucose)

Sucrose (glucose + fructose)

Lactose (glucose + galactose)

21

What is an isomer?

Molecules that have the same chemical formula but whose molecules are arranged differently.

22

Long chains of repeating molecules are called...

polymers

24

Glucose + Fructose --> _________

Glucose + Fructose --> Sucrose

26

The general chemical formula of a monosaccharide is...

(CH2O)where n is the number of carbon atoms.

27

Glucose + Glucose --> _________

Glucose + Glucose --> Maltose

28

Identify the monosaccharide

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β-Glucose

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29

A 7 carbon sugar is called a...

heptose

30

Name the type of monosaccharide

Give its formula

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Heptose

(CH2O)7

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32

A molecule containing carbon is called an...

organic molecule

34

Name 4 common hexose monomers

α-Glucose

β-Glucose

Galactose

Fructose

35

Name 2 common storage polysaccharides

Glycogen

Starch

36

Name the type of monosaccharide

Give its formula

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Triose

(CH2O)3

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37

Which 4 elements make up most biological molecules?

Carbon

Hydrogen

Oxygen

Nitrogen

38

Glucose + Galactose --> _________

Glucose + Galactose --> Lactose

39

Polysaccharides are used in cells for _____________ and ____________

Storage (energy)

Structure (cell walls)

40

name the monomer that makes up maltose

glucose

41

sucrose hydrolysis produces..

fructose and

glucose

42

How is starch related to its function?

1. Helical/ spiral shape so compact;

2. Large (molecule)/insoluble so osmotically inactive;

3. Branched so glucose is (easily) released for respiration;

4. Large (molecule) so cannot leave cell/cross cell-surface membrane;

43

How is the structure of cellulose suited to its function?

Long, straight/unbranched chains of β glucose;

Joined by hydrogen bonding;

To form (micro/macro)fibrils;

Provides rigidity/strength;

44

What other enzyme is required for the complete digestion of starch?

amylase and maltase

45

Give 2 differences between the structure of cellulose and glycogen

celluose molecules  straight chains;glycogen branched

cellulose beta glucose;glycogen alpha glucose

celluose molecules straight chains; glycogen coiled

celluose has only 1, 4 glycosidic bonds; glycogen has 1,4 and 1,6 bonds

46

Desccribe and explain 2 features of starch that makes it a good storage molecule

coiled/helical making it compact

insoluble so does not affect the WP of cells

LArge so cant cross the cell membrane

Branched so more ends for enzyme action

 

47

test which tests for starch?

iodine

48

Describe how lactose is formed

glucose and galactose

join by condensation reaction

through a glycosidic bond