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Flashcards in 32 Deck (39):
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Yalta

Feb 1945 Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt met here and agreed to divide Germany into 4 occupation zones. Germans would have to pay soviets compensation for loss of life

1

UN

Goal to protect members against aggression. Had 11 member security counsel. 5 permanent: Britain, China, France, US, Soviet Union. Each member able to veto any security counsel action

2

Iron curtain

Phrase used by Churchill to describe mostly democratic Western Europe and communist Eastern Europe division

3

Containment

Truman adopted this policy. US to block soviet influence and spread of communism. Policies included creating alliances, helping weak countries, resisting soviet influence

4

Truman doctrine

Was issued to give support to countries that resisted communism. Congress approved $4million to help in turkey and Greece

5

Marshall plan

June 1947, US Secretary of State George Marshall said to give help to any country in need. Food and machines. $12.5 billion to countries. Went through after communist takeover of Czech. Soviets cut off all entrances into Berlin as result

6

Berlin airlift

Result of soviets closing off Berlin. Americans and British flew in food and supplies into West Berlin for nearly 11 months

7

Cold War

Lasted from 1949-1991. Was diplomatic tension between soviets and US. Dictated majority of foreign policies of these countries. US wins

8

NATO

1949-10 euro nations joined US/ Canada to form. Promised to attack or use military force if any of NATO members were attacked. First peace military commitment by US.

9

Warsaw Pact

As result of NATO soviets sign this 1955. Poland, east Germany, Czech, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania

10

Chaing Kai shek

Nationalist leader who misused US funds

11

Dulles

Appointed sec of state by Eisenhower. Strict anti communist. Followed breakmanship.

12

Breakmanship

If soviets attack any of US interests, will retaliate immediately. Required strong air force and weapon stockpile.

13

ICBM

Announced by Russians 1957. Rocket that could fly great distances & pushed Sputnik out.

14

Sputnik

First unmanned satellite launched by Russians 1957. Pushed out of atmosphere by ICBM.

15

U2

Result of not wanting to fall behind Russia in space exploration. Spy plane used by US Over Russia. One shot down 1960

16

Francis Gary powers

His U2 was shot down 1960. He was captured and arrested by soviets and sentenced to 10 years, served 19 months.

17

People's ROC

Name that changed in after the communists took over china in October 1949. China mainland. Nationalist moves to Taiwan

18

Treaty of friendship

Chinese communists signed this with Russia 1950

19

Agrarian reform law

1950. Led to Mao seizing land from major land lords. 1million+ landlords killed for resisting.

20

Great Leap Forward

Launched by Mao 1958. Called for bigger farms (communes). More stuff less quality. 26k communes 20k people each. As result Mao stepped out of power.

21

Commune

Bigger farms wanted in Great Leap Forward. By end of 1958 had 26k with 20k each. Inefficiency, crop failures, famines killed 20 million.

22

Red guards

Emerged when Mao stepped into power 1966 and targeted youth. College and highschool students formed these militia units. Led the cultural revolution. Est. equality in societies, intellectual and artistic deemed dangerous. Shut down schools. Thousands died in prison / execution

23

Cultural revo

Began by red guard. Est. equality in societies, intellectual and artistic deemed dangerous. Schools shut down. Mao stopped it when realized had gone too far

24

38th parallel

Where Korea was divided after WW2. N controlled by soviets, S by US.

25

MacArthur

General of 15 UN nations troops sent to Korea to deal w/ invasion. Tried to use nukes, when went behind Truman's back was fired.

26

Hi chi Minh

Turned to communism. 1930s led revolts against French. Fled to Vietnam. Returned 1941, 1 yr after JAP takeover. Left 1945.

27

Domino theory

Theory that when one nation falls to communism, all around it fall

28

Diem

Anti communist govt leader. Ruled S Korea as dictator. Called off elections BC felt would lose

29

Gulf of Tonkin

London Johnson tells congress Vietnam patrol boats attacked 2 amer destroyers. As result congress auth. prez to send troops to viet. 1968, nearly 500k soldiers in viet.

30

Vietnamization

US withdrew US troops and had more south Vietnamese fight. Last US forces let 1973.

31

Khmer Rouge

Communist rebels who took over 1975 in Cambodia. PolPot leader. Overthrew govt 1978 when Vietnamese invaded

32

PolPot

Leader of Khmer Rouge. Responsible for deaths of 2 million people. Captured and held for war crimes 1997.

33

Fidel Castro

Jan 1959 Over threw Bautista. Praised for improving health care, literacy, economy. Suspended elections. Jailed executed opponents. Controlled press.

34

Bautista

Supported by US. Dictator in Cuba before revolution.

35

Bay of pigs invasion

Auth by Kennedy. Cuban exiles and CIA attempted overthrow of Castro. Major failure & embarrassment

36

Kruschev

Russian leader who in Jan 1962 authorized building of missile sites on Cuba, discovered by American spy plane. Became Cuban missile crisis

37

CM CRISIS

When American spy planes discovered Russian missiles on Cuba. Demanded be removed. Russia did. US removed missiles from turkey.

38

Sandinista

1974 these communists overthrew govt