3.2 Our Brains Control Our Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > 3.2 Our Brains Control Our Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.2 Our Brains Control Our Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior Deck (27):
1

cerebral cortex

Humans have a very large and highly developed outer layer that provide more advanced functions— for instance, better memory, more sophisticated social interactions, and the ability to experience emotions.

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brain stem

- the oldest and innermost region of the brain
- controls the most basic functions of life, including breathing, attention, and motor responses

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medulla

the area of the brain stem that controls heart rate and breathing

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pons

a structure in the brain stem that helps control the movements of the body, playing a particularly important role in balance and walking

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reticular formation

Running through the medulla and the pons is a long, narrow network of neurons

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thalamus

the egg-shaped structure above the brain stem that applies still more filtering to the sensory information that is coming up from the spinal cord and through the reticular formation, and it relays some of these remaining signals to the higher brain levels

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limbic system

a brain area, located between the brain stem and the two cerebral hemispheres, that governs emotion and memory. It includes the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus.

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amygdala

consists of two almond-shaped‖ clusters (amygdala comes from the Latin word for “ almond") and is primarily responsible for regulating our perceptions of, and reactions to, aggression and fear

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hypothalamus

a brain structure that contains a number of small areas that perform a variety of functions, including the important role of linking the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland

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hippocampus

consists of two “horns" that curve back from the amygdala. The hippocampus is important in storing information in long-term memory

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cerebral cortex

- the outer bark-like layer of our brain that allows us to so successfully use language, acquire complex skills, create tools, and live in social groups
- divided into two hemispheres, and each hemisphere is divided into four lobes, each separated by folds known as fissures

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corticalization

the folding of the cerebral cortex

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glial cells (glia)

cells that surround and link to the neurons, protecting them, providing them with nutrients, and absorbing unused neurotransmitters

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frontal lobe

responsible primarily for thinking, planning, memory, and judgment

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parietal lobe

extends from the middle to the back of the skull and which is responsible primarily for processing information about touch

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occipital lobe

at the very back of the skull, which processes visual information

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temporal lobe

responsible primarily for hearing and language

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contralateral control

the brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa

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motor cortex

the part of the cortex that controls and executes movements of the body by sending signals to the cerebellum and the spinal cord

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somatosensory cortex

an area just behind and parallel to the motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe, receives information from the skin’s sensory receptors and the movements of different body parts

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visual cortex

the area located in the occipital lobe (at the very back of the brain) that processes visual information

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auditory cortex

responsible for hearing and language

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association areas

sensory and motor information is combined and associated with our stored knowledge

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Neuroplasticity

refers to the brain’s ability to change its structure and function in response to experience or damage

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neurogenesis

the forming of new neurons

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brain lateralization

the idea that the left and the right hemispheres of the brain are specialized to perform different functions

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corpus callosum

the region that normally connects the two halves of the brain and supports communication between the
hemispheres

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