Flashcards in 3.2.3 Cognitive Explanations Of Schizophrenia Deck (42):
(Hallucinations) what percent of people have experienced hallucinations? (Clarborn)
(Hallucinations) most people experiencing hallucinations are not what?
Diagnosed with schizophrenia
(Hallucinations) what can cause people to hear voices in maladaptive ways? (Morrison)
Triggers e.g. Sleep deprivation
(Hallucinations) what happens to the voices that are heard?
They are processes inappropriately
(Hallucinations) give an example of voices being processed inappropriately:
Thinking they belong to the devil
(Hallucinations) this inappropriate processing can lead to what?
Social withdrawal and self harm
(Hallucinations)this is a vicious circle involving what?
Sadness and shame
Reinforces the voices messages
(Negative symptoms) what does the cognitive approach have difficulty explaining?
E.g. Alogia, flatness of effect, avolition
(Negative symptoms) beck drew a theory from what?
(Negative symptoms) Beck - what is the cognitive triad most commonly used to explain?
(Negative symptoms) in the cognitive triad there are negative views about what 3 things?
(Negative symptoms) give an example about a negative view of the future:
I will never be good at anything
(Negative symptoms) give an example of a negative view of oneself:
I am worthless
(Negative symptoms) give an example of negative views about the world:
Everyone is against me
(Negative symptoms) Beck proposed individuals with schizophrenia endorsed what?
Dysfunctional beliefs about their performance and ability to experience pleasure
(Negative symptoms) Beck - schizophrenic individuals also hold what view of the future?
Cynical and gloomy view
(Negative symptoms) Beck - a schizophrenics mental filters only allow in what?
(Negative symptoms) Beck - negative messages along with inappropriate processing does what?
Supports their pessimistic view resulting in symptoms
(Lack of preconscious filters) Frith proposed positive symptoms can be explained by what?
Difficulties in inhibiting preconscious content
(Lack of preconscious filters) Frith - normally our senses receive a lot of info from where?
(Lack of preconscious filters) when we become aware of the info what do we do?
Interpret it in our preconscious
(Lack of preconscious filters) Frith - the best fit of the incoming info does what?
Gets propelled into our conscious allowing us to make sense of the info
(Lack of preconscious filters) what are the attentional filters?
Those inhibiting most of the info making it out of our preconscious
(Lack of preconscious filters) Frith - in some people these attentional filters are what?
(Lack of preconscious filters) individuals with schizophrenia receive so much what?
Info and ways to interpret it that they find it difficult to carry out action
(Lack of preconscious filters) with delusions a defective preconscious filter leads to what?
Misinterpreting of sound hearing it as voices
(Compromised theory of mind) those with schizophrenia have difficulty understanding what?
Others thoughts and intentions
(Compromised theory of mind) difficulty in understanding influences their what?
Language use and speech interpretation
(Compromised theory of mind) e.g. Delusions of alien control involves inability to self what?
Self monitor and recognise the voice in your head
(Compromised theory of mind) E.g. Delusions of persecution involve inability to do what? Give an example:
Interpret others thought and action
E.g. Someone makes eye contact they are convinced they are following them
(Compromised theory of mind) a schizophrenic person holds mundane events as what?
Personally meaningful and significant
(Compromised theory of mind) Frith theory of mind might account for what types of disorders?
Disorders of willed action
Disorders of self monitoring
Disorders of monitoring others thoughts
(Compromised theory of mind) what are disorders of willed action?
Difficulty understanding own thought and behaviour (disorganised thinking)
(Compromised theory of mind) what are disorders of self monitoring?
Alien control hallucinations
(Compromised theory of mind) what are disorders of monitoring others thoughts?
(Schemas) hemsley suggested in people with schizophrenia their is a breakdown between what info?
Info already held in our memories - schemas and new sensory information
(Schemas) e.g at a meal at a restaurant we know what from our past experiences?
What to expect
(Schemas) processing normally takes place quickly without what?
(Schemas) Hemsley said in schizophrenia what are not activated?
(Schemas) as schemas aren't activated people experience sensory overload and do not know what?
What to pay attention to and what to ignore
(Schemas) this can lead to poor what?