33. Drugs used in constipation (laxatives) and diarrhea. Drugs promoting digestion. Pharmacology of liver and biliary tract Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology A > 33. Drugs used in constipation (laxatives) and diarrhea. Drugs promoting digestion. Pharmacology of liver and biliary tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in 33. Drugs used in constipation (laxatives) and diarrhea. Drugs promoting digestion. Pharmacology of liver and biliary tract Deck (17):
1

Which groups of laxatives are there?

  • Laxatives enhancing the bulk of the stool
  • Osmotic laxatives
  • Laxatives softening the stool (lubricants)
  • Laxatives irritating/stimulating the intestinal wall
  • Opioid antagonists
  • Chloride channel activators

2

Which are the laxatives enhancing the bulk of the stool?

  • Colloidal laxatives:
    • Methylcellulose
    • Gummi arabicum
    • Psyllium
    • Tragacantha
    • Dried fruits

3

Which are the osmotic laxatives?

  • Inorganic salts (onset: 1-3h):
    • Mg-sulfate
    • Na-sulfate
    • Na-phosphate
  • Not absorbing carbohydrates (onset 1-3 days):
    • Lactulose
    • Sorbitol
    • Mannitol
    • Glycerin

4

Which are the laxatives for softening the stool (lubricants)?

  • Paraffin oil
  • Docusate

5

Which are the laxatives irritating/stimulating the intestinal wall?

  • Natural compounds:
    • Emodins in (onset: 6-8h):
      • Senna
      • Aloe
      • Rhubarb
      • Frangula
    • Castor oil (onset: 1-6h)
  • Synthetic drugs:
    • Phenolphtalein
    • Bisacodyl
    • Na-picosulfate

6

Which are the opioid antagonist laxatives?

  • Methylnaltrexone
  • Alvimopan

7

Which are the chloride channel activator laxatives?

  • Lubiprostone
  • Linactolide

8

What groups of antidiarrheal drugs are there?

  • Adsorbing and astringent materials
  • Agents decreasing motility
  • Enkephalinase inhibitors
  • Others

9

Which are the adsorbing materials, antidiarrheal drugs?

  • Activated charcoal
  • Tannic acid
  • Bolus alba

10

Which are the astringent materials, antidiarrheal drugs?

Bismuth subgallate

11

Which are the agents decreasing motility, antidiarrheal drugs?

 

  • Opioids:
    • Diphenoxylate
    • Loperamide
  • Parasympatholytics:
    • Atropine

12

Which are the enkephalinase inhibitors, antidiarrheal drugs?

Racekadotril

13

Which are the other antidiarrheal drugs?

  • Octreotide
  • Crofelemer

14

Which are the drugs promoting digestion?

  • Appetite enhancing drugs (orexogenics):
    • Bitters (amara)
    • Herbs (aromatica)
    • Cannabinoids
  • Drugs of acid therapy:
    • Diluted chloric acid (10%)
    • Bethaine HCl
    • Citric acid
    • Tartaric acid
  • Digestive enzymes:
    • Pepsin
    • Pancreatin, lipase, protease, amylase, …
    • Tilactase

15

Which are the hepatoprotective drugs?

  • Sylmarine
  • Silibiline

16

Which are the hepatoprotective drugs decreasing the ammonia level?

  • Rifaximin
  • Lactulose
  • Neomycin

17

Which are the agents used for bile acid therapy?

  • Primary bile acids: cholic acid, chenodeoxycolic acid
  • Secondary bile acids: deoxycholic acid, urosdeoxycholic acid