33. Esophageal cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 33. Esophageal cancer Deck (15)

presentation/ prognosis

typically with 1. progressive dysphagia ( first solid , then liquids )
2. weight loss


types and epidiology

Squamous --> more common worldwide
adenocarcinoma ---> more comon in America


Causes of SCC of esophagus

1. alcohol
2. hot liquids
3 caustic strictures
4. smoking
5. achalasia
6. strictures


Causes of adenocarcinoma of esophagus

1. chronic gastrointestinal reflux
2. barret esophagus
3. obesity
4. smoking
5. achalasia


risk for both adenocarcinoma and SCC of esophagus

1. smoking
2. achalasia ( more common SCC)


lymph nodes that cancer of esophagus can be spread

upper third --> cervical
middle third ---> mediastinal or trachobronchial
lower third ---> celiac and gastric


• Name at least six risk factors associated with esophageal cancer.

Achalasia, Alcohol, Barrett esophagus, Cigarette smoking, Diverticula, Esophageal web, Familial, Fat, GERD, Hot liquids (AABCDEFFGH)


• A Mexican woman with dysphagia of solids now has difficulty with liquids as well. She also smokes. Which part of her esophagus is affected?

Likely affects the upper two-thirds of the esophagus (this is squamous cell carcinoma)


• Worldwide, which type of esophageal cancer is most common?

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma


• A patient (native of the United States) presents with esophageal cancer. Which part of the esophagus is it most likely to affect?

The lower third (this is esophageal adenocarcinoma, which is more common than squamous cell esophageal cancers in the United States)


• A patient with a history of Barrett esophagus has dysphagia for solids and liquids and weight loss. What is the likely diagnosis?

Esophageal adenocarcinoma


• An alcoholic with a Zenker diverticulum has dysphagia with hot liquids. What type of esophageal cancer is he at high risk for?

Esophageal squamous cell cancer


• An obese patient with a very long history of GERD has started to have dysphagia to liquids. What finding is likely on esophageal biopsy?

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (long history of GERD is a risk factor for Barrett esophagus, which is followed by esophageal cancer


• A smoker presents with progressive dysphagia and weight loss in the past few months. What is his likely diagnosis?

Esophageal squamous cell cancer or esophageal adenocarcinoma


• A patient with Hirschsprung disease has progressive dysphagia and other symptoms of achalasia. What type of cancer is he at high risk for?

Esophageal cancer

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