3.3 Pressure Groups Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.3 Pressure Groups Deck (24):
1

Examples of business pressure groups

American Business Conference
National Automobile Dealers Association

2

Examples of agriculture groups

American Farm Bureau Federation
National Farmers Union

3

Examples of professional groups

American Medical Association
American Bar Association

4

Examples of single issue groups

MADD
NRA

5

Examples of ideological groups

American Conservative Union
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

6

Examples of group rights groups

NAACP
NOW
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)

7

Examples of public interest groups

Common Cause
Friends of the Earth

8

What are the functions of pressure groups?

1. Representation
2. Citizen participation
3. Public education
4. Agenda-building (try to influence agendas of parties, legislatures and bureaucracies)
5. Programme monitoring (hold govt. to account and ensure they deliver on their promises)

9

How do pressure groups operate?

1. Electioneering and endorsement
2. Lobbying
3. Publicity
4. Organising grassroots activity

10

What do PACs do?

They raise and then give campaign funds to candidates for political office. Trend that incumbents attract more PAC money than challengers

11

What is lobbying?

An attempt to exert influence on the policy-making, legislative or judicial process by individuals or organised groups.

12

What is the revolving door syndrome?

When lobby firms recruit former policy-makers

13

Examples of pressure groups using publicity

2016 NRA slammed Obama on social media over gun laws

14

What is the political significance of pressure groups?

1. The USA is a diverse, heterogenous society so there's a greater variety of interests to represent
2. American political system has many access points - 3 branches to try to influence
3. Weakness of political parties means citizens turn increasingly to pressure groups - divided government and poor party discipline

15

Pressure group methods to influence the legislature

1. Direct contact with Congressmen and their senior staff
2. Direct contact with committee members and their staff
3. Organising constituencies to make contact with their congressmen to express support/opposition to a policy initiative
4. Publicise voting records
5. Endorsement and opposition of congressmen in elections
6. Fundraising and campaigning for or against congressmen

16

Who launched a media campaign in support of Neil Gorsuch for Supreme Court nomination in 2017?

The NRA

17

How do pressure groups influence the executive?

Maintaining strong ties with relevant executive departments and regulatory commissions

18

What problems can emerge when pressure groups influence the executive?

Regulatory commission can act as lap dogs rather than watch dogs; this is particularly the case with 'producer' groups e.g. Companies, unions and business federations seeking funding, subsidies or protection

19

How do pressure groups influence the judiciary?

By offering amicus curiae (friends of the court) briefings - an opportunity to present their views to the court in writing before oral arguments are heard.
By supporting/opposing Supreme Court nominations

20

Example of amicus curiae brief

February 2017 Lee vs. USA by American Bar Association

21

Example of pressure group involved in Court case

2005 McCreary County v. American Civil Liberties Union of Kentucky

22

Arguments in favour of pressure groups

1. They are information givers - to members of Congress, govt. depts, courts and electorate
2. Policy formulators
3. Enhance participation

23

Arguments against pressure groups

1. Money becomes too important - 'pay to play'
2. American had 'the finest Congress that money can buy' - Edward Kennedy
3. Work too much for special interests rather than national interest
4. Elitist and largely unaccountable - detracts from elected officials
5. Lead to inequalities of power e.g. Focus on healthcare, tobacco, gun control
6. Revolving door syndrome - federal officials use their position to do favours in exchange for a good post when they leave office
7. Direct action methods can be inappropriate

24

Factors that lead to pressure group success

1. Effective organisation and leadership
2. Wealth
3. Large membership
4. Status and effectiveness of opposition
5. Achievability of the goal