3.3 Xylem, Phloem & transport Flashcards Preview

A Level Biology > 3.3 Xylem, Phloem & transport > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.3 Xylem, Phloem & transport Deck (42):
1

what does xylem transport?

water and minerals

2

which way does xylem transport water and minerals?

roots to leaves

3

is xylem made of dead or alive tissue?

dead

4

what are dead xylem vessels impregnated with?

lignin for support

5

xylem vessels also have pits what does this do?

let water flow from one xylem to another in case of collapsing

6

what does phloem transport?

sugars

7

in what direction can the phloem transport sugars?

roots to leaves
leaves to roots

8

what does phloem consist of?

companion cells and sieve tube elements

9

is phloem lignified?

no it is a long hollow structure

10

what are sieve tube elements?

cells of the phloem allowing nutrients to flow through the plants in a watery stream

11

how are sieve tube elements arranged in the phloem?

end to end

12

what are companion cells?

cells of the phloem aiding the movement of nutrients

13

what process do plants need to move water for?

photosynthesis

14

the sugars produced in photosynthesis are needed for what and where?

respiration throughout the plant

15

when transporting water and minerals what do the roots hairs give the root?

large surface area for water uptake

16

once in the root water travels from the cortex to where?

vascular tissues in the stele

17

what does the cortex consist of?

undifferentiated parenchyma cells

18

in the xylem water moves through pits to what cells?

elongated tracheid cells

19

how do xylem vessels join to form continuous vessels?

end to end

20

what do sclerenchyma fibres in the xylem provide?

support

21

in the leaf vascular bundles are surrounded by what sort of tissue?

mesophyll tissue

22

what does mesophyll tissue contain?

air spaces into which water evaporates

23

water vapour leaves the plant via the what?

stomata

24

how do stomata control water loss?

opening and closing

25

give an example of the main sugar transported in the phloem?

sucrose

26

what are tubers?

enlarged roots which store sugars by converting them to starch

27

give an example of a tuber:

a potato

28

a tuber grows as a plant is doing what?

photosynthesising

29

when does a tuber break down and why?

to provide sucrose when it is needed for growth

30

phloem consists of sieve tubes supported by what type of cell?

companion cell

31

sieve tubes lack organelles to allow what to move easily?

sap

32

how do fruits store sugars?

by converting them to starch

33

fruits don't provide energy for the plant, so what do they provide energy for?

the daughter plant

34

fruits also attract animals that do what?

distribute their seeds

35

what type of molecule is lignin, where is it found and what does it do?

carbohydrate found in xylem, providing support

36

what does thick walled xylem parenchyma (tissue) do and contain?

store food
contain tannin deposits

37

(xylem) what is tannin, what does it do?

bitter tasting chemical protecting plant tissues from attack by herbivores

38

(xylem) what can lignin form?

rings
spirals
tubes

39

what do spirals of lignin in the lumen of the xylem help do?

reinforce the xylem vessels so they don't collapse under transpiration pull

40

which vessels are the main transporting components of phloem?

sieve tube elements

41

(phloem) areas between sieve tube elements become perforated to form what?

sieve plates

42

(phloem) what do sieve plates allow?

phloem contents to flow through

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