Flashcards in 3.3.2 Evaluation: Adrenaline & Acute Stress Deck (33):
(support of C. issues) a number of research studies support the link between stress and what?
(support of C. issues) Kario et al (2003) researched which earthquake?
Kobe earthquake in which 6400 people died
(support of C. issues) Kario et al found in areas close to the centre of the earthquake there was how much of an increase in heart attacks?
(support of C. issues) Kario et al found in areas close to the centre of the earthquake there was how much of an increase in sudden death?
(support of C. issues) what does Kario et al's research support?
link between stress, adrenaline and cardiovascular disease
(support of C. issues) Leor et al found what on the day of the north ridge California earthquake in 1994?
Increase in the number of deaths caused by cardiovascular problems
(support of C. issues) Leor's research provides evidence supporting what?
Sudden acute stress and release of adrenaline are linked win cardiovascular disease
(support of C. issues) quasi experiments were used in earthquake research, why is this good?
You cannot create and earthquake for practical reasons
You cannot cause people cardiovascular issues for ethical reasons
(support of C. issues) what is an issue of using quasi experiments?
Lack of control over EVs and CVs so you can't establish cause and effect
(Stress not causal factor) dimsdale said we need to be cautious when saying stress causes heart disease, why?
A number other factors are involved
(Stress not causal factor) what might some factors be which may cause heart disease?
(Stress not causal factor) in the UK million women study what did Liu suggest?
People who are ill may report higher stress and lower happiness rather than stress causing the illness
(Stress not causal factor) what did Liu analyse data from?
700000 questionnaires completed by women on happiness and health
(Stress not causal factor) in Liu's study 10 years after questionnaires were completed how many people died?
(Stress not causal factor) when Liu considered causes of death inc cardiovascular problems what did he find?
Death rates were equal amongst the happy and unhappy
(Stress not causal factor)what does Liu's research indicate?
There is no link between stress, adrenaline and cardiovascular problems
(Gender differences) what is an issue of a lot of research into the fight or flight response?
Focuses on males
Beta gender bias
Assumes women respond the same
(Gender differences)why does a lot of research focus on males?
(Gender differences) what would happen if a woman fled or fought her attacker in the EEA?
She would put her offspring at risk
If she was killed they wouldn't survive
(Gender differences) Taylor et al said the tend and befriend response was more adaptive for women, what is this?
Nurturing their young
Creating social networks with other women
(Gender differences) why can gender differences be seen as a weakness for the fight or flight explanation?
Suggests women and men have different responses to stress
(Challenge vs threat) explaining stress purely in terms of a biological response is what?
(Challenge vs threat) Blascovich & Tomaka suggest a difference in how our body responds to stress is dependant on what?
Whether we see the event as a challenge or threat
(Challenge vs threat) what happens if we see an event as a a challenge?
Blood vessels relax
Heart beats powerfully
(Challenge vs threat) what happens if we perceive the event as a threat?
Heart rate increases
Negative effects occur e.g. Those on the heart
(Challenge vs threat) if we only focus on the biology of stress what are we ignoring?
The psychology of stress
(Challenge vs threat) Jamieson et al randomly allocated participants to 3 groups giving them a stressful task involving what?
delivering a speech to observers providing negative feedback
(Challenge vs threat) Jamieson - what did participants do in the appraisal condition?
Think about their psychological response as functional and useful (challenge)
(Challenge vs threat) Jamieson - what did participants do in the comparison condition?
Ignored source of stress
(Challenge vs threat) Jamieson - what did participants do in the third group?
They were given no instructions
(Challenge vs threat) Jamieson - participants who reappraised their psychological response showed what ?
A more adaptive cardiovascular response
(Challenge vs threat) What does Jamieson's research suggest?
We may be ignoring the psychological aspect of stress