3.3.3.2 Absorption of the Products of Digestion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.3.3.2 Absorption of the Products of Digestion Deck (42):
1

What does the diagram show?

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Active transport of molecules by a carrier protein against a concentration gradient.

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2

What happens to triglycerides which have been reformed in the endoplasmic reticulum of epithelial cells lining the ileum?

They are associated with cholesterol and lipoproteins to form chylomicrons.

3

What does the diagram show?

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Simple diffusion through a cell membrane from a high to low concentration

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4

Diffusion and facilitated diffusion are both passive processed. What is meant by this?

They do not require ATP (energy)

5

Identify the label on the diagram and the type of transport that take place.

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Glucose carrier protein

Facilitated diffusion

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6

What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum in lipid absorption?

  • An organelle in the epithelial cells lining the ileum where monoglyerides and fatty acids are recombined to make triglycerides.
  • Triglycerides begin to associate with cholesterol and lipoproteins here also.

7

Why does having many capillaries optimise absorption in the ileum?

Nutrients absorbed in the blood are carried away quickly which maintains the concentration gradient between the ileum and the blood.

8

Identify the label on the diagram.

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A capillary within a villus

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9

What does the diagram show?

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The path taken by glucose/amino acids through the epithelial cells of the ileum and into the blood.

10

Identify the label on the diagram and the type of transport that take place.

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Sodium-Glucose co-transport carrier protein

Facillitated diffusion

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11

Define active transport

the movement of molecules or ions into or out of a cell from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration using ATP (energy) and carrier proteins.

12

What does the diagram show?

Q image thumb

Facilitated diffusion via a carrier protein from a high to low concentration

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13

What happens to the chylomicrons that are produced in the epithelial cells lining the ileum?

They exit the cells via exocytosis and enter the lymphatic system via lacteals.

14

What is happening at stage 3 in the diagram?

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Glucose is moving into the blood stream via facilitated diffusion through a carrier protein.

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15

How are villi adapted to optimise absorption of nutrients?

  • They increase the surface area for diffusion
  • Very thin walls so less diffusion distance to the blood.
  • Many blood capillaries- blood can carry nutrients away and maintain diffusion gradients.
  • Epithelial cell lining contains microvilli increasing surface area for absorption further.
  • They contain muscle so can move contents of the ileum to maintain concentration gradients.

16

What is happening at stage 2 in the diagram?

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  • Sodium ions are moving into the epithelial cell through a cotransport carrier protein via facilitated diffusion.
  • A glucose molecule is carried through the cotransport carrier protein by the sodium ion (still facilitated diffusion)
  • The sodium ion moves down a concentration gradient
  • Glucose moves against its concentration gradient.

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17

What is a lacteal?

A lymphatic capillary that is found in the centre of each villus of the small intestine.

18

Describe the process of active transport.

  • Molecule or ion binds to carrier protein.
  • ATP binds to carrier protein, gives a phosphate and ADP is released.
  • Carrier protein changes shape and moves molecule to opposite side of membrane.
  • Phosphate is released from carrier protein and protein reverts back to start position.

19

Identify the label on the diagram and the type of transport that take place.

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Sodium-Potassium Pump (carrier protein)

Active Transport

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20

What is a protein channel?

A protein that spans a cell membrane and will only allow specific molecules to pass through. Involved in facilitated diffusion.

21

What is facilitated diffusion?

  • Diffusion of molecules or ions aided by carrier proteins or protein channels.
  • Does NOT use ATP (energy),

22

Name the products of digestion

Monosaccharides

Amino Acids

Monoglycerides

Fatty Acids

23

Where are the products of digestion absorbed?

Ileum (small intestine)

24

Which other product of digesiton is absorbed into the blood via the same method as glucose?

Amino acids

25

How is the ileum adapted to carry out the process of absorption of nutrients?

Its wall contains many villi, which greatly increases the area for nutrient absorption

26

How does the thin wall of the ileum help to optimise absorption?

Less distance for nutrients to diffuse across before reaching the blood.

27

What does the diagram show?

Q image thumb

Facillitate diffusion via a channel protein from high to low concentration

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28

What happens to monoglycerides and fatty acids after they have entered the epithelial cells lining the ileum?

They are transported to the endoplasmic reticulum where they are recombined into triglycerides.

29

Micelles are created by an asociation between bile salts and triglycerides. After lipase has acted on micelles of triglyceride we are left with...

Micelles of monoglycerides and fatty acids (still asociated with bile salts)

30

How do monoglycerides and fatty acids enter the epithelial cells lining the ileum?

Simple diffusion

31

Bile salts emulsify fatty acids into smaller structures called...

micelles

32

Define diffusion

the net movement of molecules or ions from a region where they are highly concentrated to a region where they are less concentrated until evenly distributed.

33

By what process is glucose absorbed from the ileum and into the blood?

Facilitated diffusion

Co-transport (indirect active transport)

34

Why can monoglycerides and fatty acids enter the epithelial cells of the ileum via simple diffusion?

Because they are non polar molecules so can bypass the non polar fatty acid section of the cell membrane.

35

What is happening at stage 1 in the diagram?

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  • Sodium ions are actively transported out of the epithelial cell by a sodium-potassium pump.
  • Potassium ions are actively transported into the cell.
  • This creates a lower sodium ion concentration in the epithelial cell than in the ileum.

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36

What is the function of the golgi apparatus in lipid absorption?

An organelle in the epithelial cells lining the ileum where triglycerides association with cholesterol and lipoproteins takes place.

37

What is meant by a chylomicron?

A triglyceride associated with cholesterol and a lipoprotein which aids lipid transport into the lymphatic system.

38

What happens to chylomicrons when they enter the lymphatic system?

They are hydrolysed by an enzyme and enter the blood

39

What is a carrier protein?

  • A protein spanning a cell membrane that specific molecules or ions bind to, which causes the protein to change shape and carry the molecule onto the other side of the membrane.
  • Involved in facilitated diffusion and active transport.

40

How do fatty acids and glycerol molecules enter the intestinal epithetial cell?

Diffusion

41

Explain the advantage of lipid droplet and micelle formation

droplets increase SA for enzyme action so FASTER hydrolysis

micelle formation carries FA and glycerol through the intestinal membrane

42

How is the golgi involved in the absorption of lipids?

modifies triglycerides

adds protein on/.forms lipoproteins

packages them for their release

/forms vesciles