35. Pleural effusions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 35. Pleural effusions Deck (24):
1

pleural effusion-definition

excess accumulation of fluid betwwen pleural layers

2

pleural effusion-pleural effusion cause

restricted lung expansion during inspiration

3

pleural effusion- treatment

thoracentesis to remove fluid

4

pleural effusion-types

1. transudate
2. exudate
3. lymphatic

5

pleural effusion transdutate - pathophysiology

increased hydrostatic or decreased oncotic pressure

6

pleural effusion transdutate -situation that cause it

1. Heart failure
2. nephrotic syndrome
3. hepatic cirrhosis

7

pleural effusion transdutate -fluid characteristcs

decreased protein

8

pleural effusion exudate - pathophysiology

increased vascular permeability

9

pleural effusion exudate

1. malignacy
2. pneumonia

3. trauma
4. collagen vascular disease

10

pleural effusion exudate

must be dreained due to risk of infection

11

pleural effusion lymphatic - also known as

chylothorax

12

pleural effusion exudate - fluid characteristcs

1. increased protein content
2. cloudy

13

pleural effusion lymphatic - fluid characteristcs

1. Increased triglycerides
2. milky appering fluid

14

pleural effusion lymphatic due to

thoracic duct inhury from trauma or malignancy

15

pleural effusion lymphatic due to thoracic duct inhury from

trauma or malignancy

16

• In terms of pleural effusions, transudates have ____ (less/more) protein than exudates.

Less

17

• Name the three types of pleural effusions.

Transudative, exudative, and lymphatic

18

• Transudative pleural effusion is caused by ____ (increased/decreased) hydrostatic pressure or ____ (increased/decreased) oncotic pressure.

Increased, decreased

19


• Name four causes of exudative pulmonary effusions.

Malignancy, pneumonia, collagen vascular disease, and states of increased vascular permeability (trauma)

20

• What makes an exudate cloudy?

Exudates are cloudy because of their higher protein content

21

• A patient develops a pleural effusion secondary to trauma. Is this more likely to be transudative or exudative?

Exudative (trauma is a state of increased vascular permeability)

22

• A patient with an exudative pleural effusion requires immediate drainage of the effusion. Why is this the case?

Exudates have a high infection risk

23

• A woman has a pleural effusion that consists of high triglyceride levels and has a milky appearance grossly. What type of effusion is this?

Lymphatic

24

• What causes lymphatic effusions (chylothorax)?

Thoracic duct injury from trauma or malignancy