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Flashcards in 357 4 Imitate to Purpose Deck (86):
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imitate
reproduce someone's behavior or looks
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In the final, mocking Allegro, the violinist imitates a kind of teenage cackle through crisp fast notes embellished with grace notes.
—New York Times (Jan 20, 2014)

imply
suggest as a logically necessary consequence; in logic
NOTES:
"Imply" also means "express or state indirectly" or "suggest that someone is guilty"--neither of these definitions fits the example sentence since it directly states that a focus on sharing can lead to less consumption, and this would not be a situation that would require a suggestion of guilt.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In a consumer-oriented economy, where the idea is for people to consume, changing the paradigm to sharing would seem to imply a lot less consumption.
—Forbes (Feb 6, 2014)

inclined
(often followed by `to') having a preference, disposition, or tendency
NOTES:
The Latin "clinare" means "to lean"--this is more clearly seen in another definition of "inclined" ("at an angle to the horizontal or vertical position"), but it is also suggested by the chosen definition, since a preference, disposition, or tendency is a lean towards something or someone. In the example sentence, the description of Mr. Kerry's inclination means that he leans towards believing that China is inclining towards greater freedom of the Internet.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
During the meeting, Mr. Kerry sometimes seemed inclined to see a glass half full, while the bloggers were worried that it was emptying.
—New York Times (Feb 15, 2014)

include
have as a part, be made up out of
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Her research includes studying various strains of itchy mice that are models for human ailments.
—New York Times (Feb 17, 2014)

incorporate
include or contain; have as a component
NOTES:
The Latin "corpus" means "body" and "incorporare" means "to form into a body"--this is suggested by other definitions of "incorporate": 1) make into a whole or make part of a whole; 2) unite or merge with something already in existence.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Stanford’s football team has incorporated yoga into its training program.
—New York Times (Feb 4, 2014)

indicate
give evidence of
NOTES:
Both the chosen definition and this one of "be a signal for or a symptom of" seem to indicate that "indicate" is a strong and believable verb. But its Latin root of "dicare" which means "to proclaim or cry out" can be seen in definitions that are less sure: 1) to state or express briefly; 2) to point out a place, direction, person, or thing.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Deviations from the predicted shape of the halo would indicate that Einstein’s theory of gravity needs revision.
—New York Times (Feb 17, 2014)

indirect
having intervening factors or persons or influences
NOTES:
The potable use is indirect because it is not the drinking of water that comes from a mountain spring, but the drinking of wastewater that has been put through a multistep cleaning process. The phrase "indirect potable use" is indirect because it uses language that does not straightforwardly get to the point.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Officially this method is called indirect potable use, but it’s really water recycling.
—Time (Jan 31, 2014)

infer
reason by deduction; establish by deduction
NOTES:
Compare with "deduce"--the example sentences and chosen definitions show the verbs as synonymous. But they can also be antonymous, since "deduce" means "reason from the general to the particular" while "infer" means "draw from specific cases for more general cases"--this makes a deduction seem more credible than an inference, especially since "infer" can also mean "solve by guessing."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
For instance, since infants look longer at events that surprise them, developmental psychologists can use gaze time to infer the predictions of preverbal children.
—Scientific American (Jan 28, 2014)

influence
a power to affect persons or events especially power based on prestige etc
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
They want to purge Thailand of the influence of her divisive brother, Thaksin Shinawatra, who they claim continues to run the country by proxy.
—Time (Feb 18, 2014)

inform
impart knowledge of some fact, state or affairs, or event to
NOTES:
"Inform" has another meaning that connects to the verb "form": "give character or essence to"--both definitions fit the example sentence, since the scientific results both provide information and form the character of future experimental searches.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The results lay the groundwork for future microscopic models and inform the experimental search for such materials.
—Science Magazine (Feb 6, 2014)
inquire
conduct an inquiry or investigation of
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
So from time to time it’s good to take the focus off yourself and inquire into those around you a little more deeply.
—Forbes (Dec 30, 2013)

instruction
a message describing how something is to be done
NOTES:
"Instruction" also means "activities that impart knowledge or skill"--both definitions fit the example sentence, since the writer was learning how to fly on a trapeze.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The instructor gave some very basic instructions for what sounded like some very advanced moves.
—Salon (Feb 7, 2014)

integrate
make into a whole or make part of a whole
NOTES:
The example sentence describes integrating maps with search, but integration can also produce 1) a whole society that is open to members of all races and ethnic groups; 2) a whole number (through a calculus operation).
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
"That's why they're integrating maps with search. When you search for Peking duck, you're seeing nearby restaurants in your results."
—Reuters (Jan 29, 2014)

intent
the intended meaning of a communication
NOTES:
As a noun, "intent" is also a shorter version of "intention" and as an adjective, it means "giving or marked by complete attention to."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Whatever the intent, the sample never meshes with its soundtrack, and never inspires thought deeper than “radio evangelists were probably mistaken about rock ‘n’ roll.”
—Time (Jan 24, 2014)

intention
an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Satisfied with this initial success rate, the researchers then expanded their efforts with the intention of producing a few fully developed baby monkeys.
—Scientific American (Jan 31, 2014)

interact
act together or towards others or with others
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The law of combinations applies when there are many interacting people or objects.
—Scientific American (Feb 14, 2014)

intermittent
stopping and starting at irregular intervals
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Instead of intermittent reports, people would be able to record a steady stream of data and get warnings when they need them most.
—BusinessWeek (Feb 4, 2014)

interpret
make sense of; assign a meaning to
NOTES:
"Interpret" also means "make sense of a language" and "give an explanation to"--all three definitions fit, because 1) the Bible's many translations through time, cultures, and languages have an effect on meaning; 2) the many books of the Bible include a mix of historical events, divine miracles, and parables, which many scholars from different disciplines have devoted themselves to sorting and explaining.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Interpreting the Bible is a little like studying Leonardo DaVinci’s painting of the Last Supper, he says.
—Time (Feb 11, 2014)

introduce
bring in a new person or object into a familiar environment
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The Girl Scouts recently introduced a gluten-free chocolate chip shortbread cookie to their annually anticipated line of sweet treats.
—New York Times (Feb 17, 2014)

introduction
the first section of a communication
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
“Voting in elections is considered sacrosanct by a large majority of Indians,” Mukulika Banerjee writes in the introduction to her new book, “Why India Votes.”
—New York Times (Jan 20, 2014)
invariably
without variation or change, in every case
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Invariably, around February of each year, coinciding with Black History Month, you’ll hear people asking, “Why isn’t there a white history month?”
—Salon (Feb 6, 2014)

investigate
conduct an inquiry or investigation of
NOTES:
Compare with "inquire"--the two verbs have synonymous definitions, but as shown by the example sentences and Latin roots ("quaerere" means "to ask" and "vestigare" means "to track"), an investigation often involves more following and follow-through.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The Silkworm will follow the private investigator Cormoran Strike, who Rowling introduced in Cuckoo, as he investigates the murder of a novelist.
—Time (Feb 17, 2014)

involve
contain as a part
NOTES:
"Involve" also means "require as useful, just, or proper" and "engage as a participant"--all three definitions fit the example sentence, because the Navy scientists needed the whales to conduct the study of how sonar affects marine mammals, but some whales were shy and required years to find and tag before they could participate (compare with the definition and example sentence for "include").
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The studies involved only a small group of tagged whales and noise levels were less intense than what's used by the Navy.
—US News (Dec 15, 2013)

irony
incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Irony is in plentiful supply in Thailand today: A billionaire tycoon is praised as the champion of the poor.
—New York Times (Feb 8, 2014)

irrelevant
having no bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Most of the time you see a doctor, you would have gotten better anyway and his actions or advice are irrelevant.
—Economist (Jan 29, 2014)

isolate
set apart from others
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
“We are imprisoning, we are isolating, but we are not rehabilitating the way we should.”
—New York Times (Feb 16, 2014)

italic
a typeface with letters slanting upward to the right
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
With emphasis in italics and bold face, he added: “We need you to focus on our primary mission of defending our nation and our allies.”
—Washington Post (Jun 27, 2013)
judge
judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time)
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Because judges are all entrenched in their sports’ insular communities, they develop relationships with the athletes and coaches they must later judge.
—Washington Post (Feb 16, 2014)
key
serving as an essential component
NOTES:
"Key" has other definitions that might be used in the classroom: 1) a list of answers to a test (which teachers might keep under lock and key); 2) a list of words or phrases explaining symbols or abbreviations; 3) something crucial for explaining.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Being as lean as possible and maintaining a healthy weight are key components of cancer prevention.
—Washington Post (Feb 18, 2014)
label
a brief description given for purposes of identification
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
"Corn is a big problem. It is really really difficult to produce seed corn that would meet the current non-GMO verified label."
—Reuters (Feb 18, 2014)

likely
has a good chance of being the case or of coming about
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Boys are also more than two-thirds more likely than girls to be born prematurely--before the 37th week of pregnancy.
—Scientific American (Feb 18, 2014)

list
include in a list
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Lab websites also often list research projects, publications, data sets, software, job openings, collaborators and contact information.
—Nature (Feb 12, 2014)
literal
limited to the explicit meaning of a word or text
NOTES:
The example sentence refers to technologies that can be figuratively mind-blowing because they seem like unbelievable images from a science fiction movie. But the technologies can also be literally mind-blowing because, now available in the U.S., are bionic eyes that combine a Google Glass device with a tiny electrode that is attached to a membrane that's connected to a nerve that leads to the brain.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Either way it is going to be mind-blowing, quite possibly in a literal sense.
—BBC (Dec 2, 2013)

locate
discover the location of; determine the place of; find by searching or examining
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In a conversation, O’Reilly author Matthew Gast suggested that you could extend the concept to develop a collar that would help to locate missing pets.
—Forbes (Feb 7, 2014)

logical
based on known statements or events or conditions
NOTES:
"Logical" also means "marked by an orderly and coherent relation of parts" (compare with the synonymous "coherent")--this does not fit the example sentence, since the laughter was caused by the students' recognition that the logic of this statement "In order to function at your mental and physical best, adolescents should be getting at least nine hours of sleep a night" does not relate to reality.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
For many students, nine hours of sleep is so far beyond their reality that their only logical response is laughter.
—New York Times (Jan 15, 2014)

main
most important element
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The main reason banknotes get dirty is that they pick up an oily substance called sebum from human skin.
—Economist (Jan 16, 2014)
margin
the blank space that surrounds the text on a page
NOTES:
In referring to statistics, a margin of error is "a permissible difference." In referring to economics, a profit margin is "the net sales minus the cost of goods and services."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In a Portuguese songbook, written around 1600, images along the margins look like Australian aboriginals and possibly a kangaroo.
—New York Times (Jan 23, 2014)

mean
denote or connote
NOTES:
The name "Champions of Jerusalem" has denotative (literal) and connotative (secondary and often suggestive) meanings. It denotes winning, but it connotes the bloody contest over the holy city. It denotes "a defender, advocate, or supporter of a cause" which leads to another definition of "warrior" which again connotes the bloody wars that have been fought over the city. In claiming responsibility for attacks, the organization deliberately connects to all meanings.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The al-Qaeda-inspired militant organisation, whose name means "Champions of Jerusalem", has increasingly turned its attacks against the Egyptian police and army.
—BBC (Feb 18, 2014)
measure
determine the measurements of something or somebody, take measurements of
NOTES:
The example sentence and chosen definition show "measure" in its connection to accuracy, which can also be seen in these definitions: 1) a container of standard capacity to obtain fixed amounts; 2) instrument having a sequence of marks at regular intervals. But "measure" can also be an uncertain estimate of the nature, quality, ability, or significance of something. And it can be "any maneuver made as part of progress toward a goal."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The pacifier device she and her colleagues used measures the pressure and rhythm of sucking.
—Reuters (Feb 18, 2014)

metaphor
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
After a while, it becomes clear that the tightrope is also a metaphor, standing for the existential risk inherent in every serious instance of playing.
—New York Times (Jan 30, 2014)

method
a way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps)
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The children or their parents answered questions about what they ate or drank the previous day, a common method researchers use to assess Americans' diets.
—Seattle Times (Feb 10, 2014)

model
representation of something (sometimes on a smaller scale)
NOTES:
If an Art teacher asks you to model, you could "assume a posture" or form something out of clay, wax, etc. If an English teacher hands you a model essay, you should examine it to see what is "worthy of imitation" and then "plan or create according to the example."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
A working computer model of living cells, even if it were somewhat sketchy and not quite accurate, would be a fantastically useful tool.
—Scientific American (Jan 6, 2014)

modify
cause to change; make different; cause a transformation
NOTES:
"Modify" also means "add a word or phrase to qualify or limit the meaning of"--in the example sentence, "British" is an adjective that qualifies (specifies a characteristic of) the scientists; "genetically" is an adverb that characterizes how the potatoes were changed; "genetically modified" is an adjectival phrase that limits the types of potatoes that are blight-resistant.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
British scientists have developed genetically modified potatoes that are resistant to the vegetable's biggest threat--blight.
—BBC (Feb 16, 2014)

monitor
keep tabs on; keep an eye on; keep under surveillance
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Only in the past decade have scientists had the technology to closely monitor the behavior of whales and dolphins.
—US News (Dec 16, 2013)

motivation
the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
One never knows which “failure” will be the tipping point for an adolescent toward more effort, self-reflection, assuming responsibility, in a word, discovering inner motivation.
—Slate (Feb 14, 2014)

narrative
a message that tells the particulars of an act or occurrence or course of events; presented in writing or drama or cinema or as a radio or television program
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
There are fiery chases and hectic brawls, and a crowd of famous voices simultaneously enacting and lampooning the standard cartoon-quest narrative of heroic self-discovery.
—New York Times (Feb 6, 2014)

narrator
someone who tells a story
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Using the "stream of consciousness" technique, her book begins with its narrator speaking from inside her mother's womb.
—BBC (Nov 14, 2013)

never
not ever; at no time in the past or future
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
He recalled a proverb he had to translate from Latin as a schoolchild: "He plants the seeds of trees he'll never see bearing fruit."
—BBC (Feb 18, 2014)
notation
a comment or instruction (usually added)
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has added Tamiflu OS to the list of resolved drug shortages on its website with the notation "no supply issues anticipated."
—Reuters (Jan 16, 2014)
note
a short personal letter
NOTES:
A similar definition is "a brief written record." Similar in spelling to "notation" and "notice" it has definitions in common with both (it can be both a noun and verb). In describing people, "note" can mean 1) high status importance owing to marked superiority; 2) a characteristic emotional quality; 3) a tone of voice that shows what the speaker is feeling.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Then, suddenly, trouble looms when Philip starts receiving notes in his dead wife’s handwriting.
—New York Times (Feb 18, 2014)
notice
discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In most cases, artifacts found at construction sites are destroyed by equipment before anyone even notices them, Horner said.
—Washington Post (Feb 16, 2014)

objective
the goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable)
NOTES:
In simply stating the objective of the Affordable Care Act, the example sentence is being objective ("undistorted by emotion or personal bias").
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
A prime objective of the Affordable Care Act is to bring down America’s health-care costs, which are the highest per person in the world.
—Seattle Times (Feb 1, 2014)

observe
observe with care or pay close attention to
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The study was conducted in Thailand, and the researchers observed the behavior of 26 elephants in captivity over the course of a year.
—Scientific American (Feb 18, 2014)

occur
come to pass
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
She will testify that former Superintendent Beverly Hall ordered the destruction of investigative documents that concluded the cheating likely occurred, according to prosecutors.
—Reuters (Feb 18, 2014)

opinion
a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Sharing views about pop culture is also common, with a median of 73% saying they use social networks to post opinions on music and movies.
—Time (Feb 13, 2014)

oppose
be against; express opposition to
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Many environmentalists believe that fracking can damage water supplies, and oppose the extraction of new fossil fuel resources.
—BBC (Feb 13, 2014)

optional
possible but not necessary; left to personal choice
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The course is largely taught through online videos, but enrolled students are also given quizzes, optional food-preparation assignments and opportunities to collaborate with classmates.
—New York Times (Jan 13, 2014)

order
logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements
NOTES:
In order of possibility, here are some orders you might receive in the classroom: 1) arrange thoughts, ideas, temporal events; 2) assign a rank or rating to; 3) bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; 4) give instructions to or direct somebody to do something; 5) make a request for something.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Seven models make both lists of the top 10 selling cars nationally and in California, though the order of the vehicles is scrambled.
—Chicago Tribune (Feb 15, 2014)
organize
cause to be structured or ordered or operating according to some principle or idea
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
School’s strict structure—its clear schedules, clean tiles, bells and clocks—allowed me to feel organized, cared for and seen.
—New York Times (Feb 18, 2014)

origin
an event that is a beginning; a first part or stage of subsequent events
NOTES:
"Origin" has its origin ("the source of something's existence or from which it derives") in the Latin verb "oriri" which means "to rise"--this gives the sense that things and people, no matter their origins, have an upward movement through space and time.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Since the origin of life on earth 3.8 billion years ago, our planet has experienced five mass extinction events.
—New York Times (Feb 10, 2014)

outline
describe roughly or briefly or give the main points or summary of
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In his speech, Mr Obama outlined his priority topics for the year, including healthcare, minimum wage and the pullout from Afghanistan.
—BBC (Jan 30, 2014)

pace
the relative speed of progress or change
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Man is the culprit, and the pace of species die-off is accelerating at a rate unprecented in the history of life on earth.
—Seattle Times (Feb 14, 2014)

paraphrase
express the same message in different words
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
He paraphrased a quotation attributed to Albert Einstein: “If an idea is not absurd, there is no hope for it.”
—New York Times (Dec 5, 2013)

participation
the act of sharing in the activities of a group
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Scientists have also noted what are called “mirror neurons” in our brains, activated not just by participation in sports, but by watching others participate.
—Seattle Times (Feb 15, 2014)

passage
a section of text; particularly a section of medium length
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Since then, he says, he has filed some 10 lawsuits involving "objectionable passages" from various textbooks.
—BBC (Feb 12, 2014)

pattern
a customary way of operation or behavior
NOTES:
Other definitions of "pattern" make it synonymous with "example" and "model" including 1) something regarded as a normative example; 2) something intended as a guide for making something else. A pattern can also be a design of natural or accidental origin (such as a snowflake) or that is artistic or decorative (such as plaid).
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Florida Atlantic won the contract to produce the water resistance measurements after doing similar work predicting drift patterns of floating items in oceans.
—US News (Dec 8, 2013)

perform
carry out or perform an action
NOTES:
In addition to performing everyday tasks, the human hand and foot can be used to "give a dramatic or musical entertainment."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Both the human hand and foot represent a triumph of complex engineering, exquisitely designed to perform a range of tasks.
—BBC (Feb 18, 2014)

perspective
a way of regarding situations or topics etc.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The Cubs hired Renteria because of a cheerful perspective that helps him communicate with young players—especially a strong Latin American contingent.
—Chicago Tribune (Feb 17, 2014)

persuade
cause somebody to adopt a certain position, belief, or course of action; twist somebody's arm
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Health workers and officials have tried for years to persuade conservative Muslims to accept vaccination.
—Washington Post (Feb 13, 2014)

place
put into a certain place or abstract location
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
That would place liability for hacks squarely on the sellers’ shoulders.
—Economist (Jan 23, 2014)
plagiarism
the act of plagiarizing; taking someone's words or ideas as if they were your own
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Brush up on the definition of plagiarism and the reason we give others credit for their work.
—New York Times (Dec 19, 2013)

plan
make plans for something
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
To help people understand the importance of savings, many organizations are planning events for America Saves Week, Monday through March 1.
—Washington Post (Feb 18, 2014)

plausible
apparently reasonable and valid, and truthful
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Thor—and the mechanics that drive his flight—is surprisingly plausible; so is the way a dragon from The Hobbit could breathe fire.
—Scientific American (Jan 7, 2014)

plot
the story that is told in a novel or play or movie etc.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
But minor characters just sort of die off, while major character deaths usually serve an important purpose in the plot.
—Time (Feb 16, 2014)

point
an isolated fact that is considered separately from the whole
NOTES:
For further thought, I will point out other definitions that might apply in a classroom: 1) indicate a place, direction, person, or thing; 2) a brief version of the essential meaning of something; 3) an outstanding characteristic; 4) the object of an activity; 5) a style in speech or writing that arrests attention; 6) the precise location of something; 7) a specific identifiable position in a continuum or series.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
But their findings suggest at least two points for further thought.
—Economist (Jan 29, 2014)
point of view
a mental position from which things are viewed
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
“We have different points of view but we learned the art of compromise and that comes out of mutual respect.”
—New York Times (Feb 4, 2014)

portray
portray in words
NOTES:
In Latin, "protrahere" means "to reveal"--this can be done through words (written or acted) or pictures.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The book is a fast read and it does a very good job portraying the colorful personalities and exciting discoveries unearthed by general relativity.
—Scientific American (Feb 5, 2014)

possible
capable of happening or existing
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
U.S. officials say, however, it is possible a U.N. resolution to help relieve the humanitarian crisis in Syria could get through the U.N.
—Reuters (Feb 18, 2014)

preclude
make impossible, especially beforehand
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
He said that strong trade ties did not in themselves preclude the outbreak of war.
—BBC (Feb 5, 2014)

predict
make a prediction about; tell in advance
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The company is also exploring medical devices and sensors that can help predict heart attacks by studying sound blood makes as it flows through arteries.
—Reuters (Feb 18, 2014)

prefix
an affix that is added in front of the word
NOTES:
Here, "prefix" is used to mean "a title placed before one's name." The prefix in "prefix" is "pre" which means "before" so as a noun, "prefix" could be any element that is attached to the beginning of a word; as a verb, "prefix" (the accent is on the second syllable) means "to settle or arrange in advance."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In traditional Afghan society religious scholars have a lot of influence--they usually use the prefix of Mullah, Maulawi or Maulana before their names.
—BBC (Nov 18, 2013)

prepare
to prepare verbally, either for written or spoken delivery
NOTES:
The Latin prefix "prae" means "before" and the verb "parare" means "to get ready." The idea of preparation can apply to a variety of purposes, whether it's planning for the delivery of legal arguments, studying for an upcoming test, training for a future role, or heating up foods for eating.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
For serious felonies, defenders spent an average of only nine hours preparing their cases, compared with the 47 hours they needed, the study found.
—New York Times (Feb 18, 2014)

presume
take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof
NOTES:
Compare with "assume"--the chosen example sentences and definitions show the verbs to be synonymous. Both come from the Latin verb "sumere" which means "to take" but their different prefixes are clues to other definitions: "ad" means "to" so "assume" can mean to take to oneself a form, power, or garment; "prae" means "before" so "presume" can mean to take an action before asking for permission.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Though we never see her there, I presume she takes classes and participates in extracurriculars and goes to college parties.
—Time (Feb 17, 2014)

preview
a screening for a select audience in advance of release for the general public
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Instead of trying to surprise viewers, many sponsors are filling social-media platforms with previews, teasers and coming attractions in hopes of stimulating additional interest.
—New York Times (Jan 17, 2014)

previous
just preceding something else in time or order
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
"Teenagers are motivated to make a difference in their community but the approach they take is radically different to previous generations," said Mr Birdwell.
—BBC (Feb 18, 2014)

primary
of first rank or importance or value; direct and immediate rather than secondary
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
But the show’s primary model is the granddaddy of weepy teenage melodramas, “Romeo and Juliet.”
—New York Times (Feb 16, 2014)

prior
earlier in time
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
That said, most “open houses” were not particularly open, requiring advance registration several months prior, and spots filled up immediately.
—New York Times (Feb 18, 2014)

probably
with considerable certainty; without much doubt
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Whatever you guess you think you will need in time and money, add 50-100% more and you are probably hitting the target.
—Forbes (Feb 19, 2014)

procedure
a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Designed to keep hunger strikers alive, the procedure involves feeding them liquid meals via tubes inserted into their noses and down into their stomachs.
—Reuters (Feb 11, 2014)

process
perform mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to programmed instructions in order to obtain the required information
NOTES:
As a noun, "process" is synonymous with "procedure" (both come from the Latin "procedere" which means "to go forward"); this meaning is implied with the phrase "what's ahead" which refers to the free agency process. Used as a verb here, "process" can also mean "deal with in a routine way" but the chosen definition suggests that Tillman's "performance of some composite cognitive activity" connects to calculations involving salary, age, playing time, etc.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Chicago Bears cornerback Charles Tillman knows what’s ahead and is processing it all with a combination of calm and perspective.
—Chicago Tribune (Feb 19, 2014)

produce
bring forth or yield
NOTES:
"Produce" also means 1) come to have or undergo a change of; 2) cultivate by growing; 3) cause to happen, occur, or exist; 4) create or manufacture a man-made product--all five definitions can mostly fit here because scientists sliced DNA strands, injected them into fertilized eggs, and encouraged the growth of embryos with the intent of implanting them into females to produce macaque monkey babies with genetic profiles similar to sick humans (for use in future experiments).
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The manipulation produced 15 normally developing embryos—of which all but one showed evidence of the desired genetic changes.
—Scientific American (Jan 31, 2014)
profile
biographical sketch
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Job seekers fill out profiles with years of experience, languages spoken and salary requirements.
—BBC (Feb 17, 2014)

project
any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted
NOTES:
In Latin, "pro" means "forth" and "jacere" means "to throw"--this idea of forward motion can be seen more clearly in the definitions of "project" as a verb: 1) throw, send, or cast forward; 2) make or work out a plan for; 3) cause to be heard; 4) present for consideration, examination, criticism, etc.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The project, which is named after the Greek mythological character Pheme--famed for spreading rumours--will run for three years.
—BBC (Feb 19, 2014)

prompt
serve as the inciting cause of
NOTES:
"Prompt" may be used as a pun here, since as an adjective, it describes how enrollment within the new healthcare system should have proceeded: "according to schedule or without delay."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The delay may prompt many healthy people to put off signing up for coverage.
—Economist (Feb 13, 2014)

proofread
read for errors
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Projects that require paying close attention to detail, like proofreading a paper or doing your taxes, Dr. Mehta said, are performed better in quiet environments.
—New York Times (Jun 21, 2013)

property
a basic or essential attribute shared by all members of a class
NOTES:
The Latin "proprietas" means "ownership"--this meaning can apply to physical things that can be owned as well as to abstract constructs that belong to and distinguish objects or individuals.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Physicists recognized that the same stew of quantum processes that determine the properties of electrons and other particles would grant energy to empty space.
—Slate (Feb 18, 2014)

propose
present for consideration, examination, criticism, etc.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
One proposed establishing an ostrich farm, and another suggested converting trash into accessories and furniture.
—New York Times (Feb 17, 2014)

prose
ordinary writing as distinguished from verse
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
A drunken row over the merits of literary forms in Russia ended in a poetry-lover stabbing a champion of prose to death, investigators say.
—BBC (Jan 29, 2014)

prove
establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Nuclear experts say the new results should help give the giant laser more time to prove its ultimate worth and gain more taxpayer support.
—New York Times (Feb 12, 2014)

purpose
what something is used for
NOTES:
Although spelled differently, "purpose" and "propose" come from the same Latin verb "proponere" which means "to put forward"--this meaning can be seen in other definitions of "purpose": 1) an anticipated outcome that guides your planned actions (compare with "intention"); 2) the quality of being determined to do or achieve something.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Iran rejects Western allegations that it is seeking a nuclear weapons capability and says it is enriching uranium only for electricity generation and medical purposes.
—Reuters (Feb 19, 2014)

quotation
a passage or expression that is quoted or cited
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
“Pigs treat us as equals,” was part of a quotation attributed to Winston S. Churchill that inspired Ellen Balfour from Long Island.
—New York Times (Jul 30, 2013)

quote
refer to for illustration or proof
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
He argued points of constitutional law, quoted Shakespeare, advocated for bipartisan compromise and even quieted hecklers.
—Time (Feb 17, 2014)

rank
take or have a position relative to others
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
And moving routinely ranks high on the list of life’s most unpleasant experiences.
—Time (Feb 19, 2014)
rare
marked by an uncommon quality; especially superlative or extreme of its kind
NOTES:
The first use of the adjective in its superlative form ("rarest") describes river dolphins and connects to this definition: "not widely known or distributed." The chosen definition applies to the second use of the adjective, which describes the experience of discovering a new species, and for which another definition could also apply: "recurring only at long intervals."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
"River dolphins are among the rarest and most endangered of all vertebrates, so discovering a new species is something that is very rare and exciting."
—US News (Jan 25, 2014)
rarely
not often
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
North Korea's leaders are often thought of as ruthless, secretive autocrats but rarely as popular children's authors.
—BBC (Feb 18, 2014)
reaction
a response that reveals a person's feelings or attitude
NOTES:
"Reaction" also means "a bodily process due to the effect of some stimulus"--since the example sentence is about parasites that can affect both the brain and body, both definitions fit.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Research also suggests it may slow down reaction times, with the intention of making us more vulnerable to large predators.
—BBC (Feb 18, 2014)

recall
recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
"I remember my first camp I had a rollaway locker right in front of the shower, and I was terrified," Russell recalled.
—Chicago Tribune (Feb 16, 2014)

reduce
make smaller
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
But scientists say the bright moon will interfere and reduce the number of visible meteors by half.
—US News (Dec 11, 2013)

refer
seek information from
NOTES:
The pronoun "she" refers to ("be relevant to") Janet Yellen, whose new position is officially referred to ("use a name to designate") as Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
But she referred to notes and appeared uncomfortable at times in addressing pointed questions on regulation.
—Chicago Tribune (Feb 11, 2014)

reflect
give evidence of the quality of
NOTES:
"Reflect" also means "think deeply on a subject" and the prefix "re" which means "back" suggests that the subject is often connected to something that had happened in the past.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In part, the decrease in cases reflects reforms in Florida’s juvenile system, which is sending fewer children to court.
—New York Times (Feb 18, 2014)

regular
in accord with regular practice or procedure
NOTES:
The chosen definition emphasizes the contrast within the example sentence (note the antonym "special"). But the regular Army can also be described by these definitions: 1) belonging to a nation's permanent army; 2) officially full-time; 3) routinely scheduled for fixed times; 4) symmetrically arranged.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
He said the equipment would be the most advanced on any rotorcraft used by the regular Army, although some special forces had similar equipment.
—Reuters (Feb 19, 2014)
relate
make a logical or causal connection
NOTES:
Another definition of "relate" that is unrelated to the example sentence is: give an account of.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The mechanical problems appeared to be related to the solar-powered probe's process for shutting down for the lunar night, which lasts more than two weeks.
—US News (Jan 27, 2014)

relationship
a relation between people; (`relationship' is often used where `relation' would serve, as in `the relationship between inflation and unemployment', but the preferred usage of `relationship' is for human relations or states of relatedness)
NOTES:
The example sentence suggests a worldwide relation between depression and peoples' lives, which could affect the relationships between millions of people.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Depression affects around 350 million people worldwide and at its worst can blight patients' lives for decades, affecting their relationships, work and ability to function.
—Reuters (Feb 17, 2014)

relevant
having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Studys show that one of the greatest obstacles to bringing holdout homes online is convincing them the Internet is relevant to their daily lives.
—Slate (Jan 28, 2014)

rephrase
express the same message in different words
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
She read out the theme of the year’s graduation, a rephrasing of a Thoreau quote: “Go confidently in the direction of your dreams.
—Salon (Sep 12, 2013)
report
a written document describing the findings of some individual or group
NOTES:
While many reports are the results of research or investigation, some can just be written accounts of personal experiences or verbal complaints to the authorities. In school, an assigned report can be an essay on any topic, or it can be the teacher's evaluation of a student's abilities.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
But reports have emerged of them being found nestled in pizza menus and other junk mail.
—BBC (Feb 19, 2014)

represent
serve as a means of expressing something
NOTES:
The Chinese artist Xu Bing literally represented ("create an image or likeness of") the phoenix. But in making it out of salvaged construction debris and tools, he intended it to represent ("point out or draw attention to in protest") the poor working conditions of migrants building luxury towers.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Representing luck, unity, power and prosperity, these mythological birds have, for the most part, been benevolent, gentle creatures.
—New York Times (Feb 14, 2014)

representative
serving to represent or typify
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
However, because the study only looked at elephants in captivity, the findings might not be representative of all elephants, Bekoff said.
—Scientific American (Feb 18, 2014)

request
express the need or desire for; ask for
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
It has requested an additional $4 million, among other increases, to cover about 4,000 cases annually in which juvenile offenders receive no representation.
—New York Times (Feb 18, 2014)

require
require as useful, just, or proper
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
It is messy work that requires bronze brushes, cork with sandpaper, scrapers, waxing irons and surgical masks.
—New York Times (Feb 18, 2014)

requisite
necessary for relief or supply
NOTES:
The Latin "requisitus" is the past participle of the verb "requirere" which means "to require" or "to ask for" (and is also the root of "request").
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The requisite servants for a 1920s country-estate story—including a discreet butler and a cheeky footman—also pop up.
—Seattle Times (Dec 12, 2013)

respond
show a response or a reaction to something
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Rehearse for the interview with a friend or colleague, and practise different ways to respond to those questions.
—Nature (Feb 19, 2014)

responsible
being the agent or cause
NOTES:
While health officials can figure out that the drugs are responsible for the deaths, they can't figure out who's responsible ("held accountable"), since acetyl fentanyl is not legally distributed. Thus, the only responsible ("worthy of or requiring trust") thing the health officials can do for the public is issue announcements and warnings.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
But in late June, Pennsylvania public health officials announced that acetyl fentanyl was responsible for 50 overdose deaths there, as well as five non-fatal overdoses.
—Forbes (Feb 19, 2014)

restate
to say, state, or perform again
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
China's foreign ministry restated its frequent calls for Japan to adopt a "responsible" view of its wartime history.
—Reuters (Jan 27, 2014)
result
a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon
NOTES:
Compare with "consequence" (they have synonymous definitions as nouns, but "result" can also be a verb that means "end").
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Hot Pockets Philly Steak and Cheese have been recalled as the result of the Rancho Feeding Corporation recall of meat products.
—Slate (Feb 19, 2014)
reveal
make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
But his reputation suffered when it was revealed the tradesman was not, in fact, a licensed plumber.
—Reuters (Feb 18, 2014)

review
appraise critically
NOTES:
"Review" can also mean "look at again"--this might apply to the example sentence if the district office has looked at the materials before, but more likely, the school administrators would be asking for "a new appraisal or evaluation" that is "a formal or official examination."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
If school administrators have a question about whether the material is appropriate, they are supposed to ask the district office to review it.
—Washington Post (Feb 18, 2014)

revise
revise or reorganize, especially for the purpose of updating and improving
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
"Revising history textbooks is a never-ending story. But that does not mean we should not start."
—BBC (Feb 18, 2014)

root
the place where something begins, where it springs into being
NOTES:
The chosen definition does not include the image of the underground part of a plant that takes hold and begins to grow--this would give a clearer sense of the deep-rooted nature of violence that cannot simply be solved with reforms on gun laws.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
As a nation, we argue for and against gun reform, yet we rarely discuss the root of the violence.
—Salon (Feb 17, 2014)

rule
prescribed guide for conduct or action
NOTES:
Rule #1: Accept this basic generalization because it is true.
Rule #2: Believe this law concerning a natural phenomenon.
Rule #3: Regard this example as the norm.
Rule #4: Use this standard procedure for solving a class of problems.
Rule #5: Know who rules.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Penalties for breaking the rules included fines, suspension, or being shut down.
—Reuters (Feb 19, 2014)
scan
examine minutely or intensely
NOTES:
"Scan" also has a seemingly opposite definition: "make a wide, sweeping search of"--but for astronomers scanning the heavens, both actions fit.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Astronomers have built quite a few observatories dedicated to patiently scanning the heavens looking for blips of light.
—Slate (Feb 13, 2014)
score
a number or letter indicating quality (especially of a student's performance)
NOTES:
Try to score a perfect 20 on the following test:
1) What do conductors and musicians often look at during performances?
2) What are you settling when you resent someone strong enough for retaliation?
3) What are the facts about an actual situation?
4) What is a set of 20 members called?
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Despite the tight security, the most common reason officials cancel test scores isn’t transmission devices hidden in rain boots—it’s sneaky glances at cell phones.
—BusinessWeek (Feb 19, 2014)
sequence
a following of one thing after another in time
NOTES:
Aside from the comedian impersonating a politician, the humor in the sequence is that it connects to the chosen definition rather than to this definition: serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In a popular impersonation by Italy's best-known comedian, Renzi captivates his audience with a mesmerizing sequence of catchy but totally meaningless phrases.
—Reuters (Feb 14, 2014)

series
similar things placed in order or happening one after another
NOTES:
"Series" and "sequence" are similar in their connections to time, but their different levels of meaning can be seen in their Latin roots ("sequi" means "to follow" and "serere" means "to join") and in this mathematical definition of "series": the sum of a finite or infinite sequence of expressions.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The plant's operator, Tokyo Electric Power Co, has been plagued by a series of mishaps including radioactive water leaks and power outages.
—Reuters (Feb 20, 2014)

set
a group of things of the same kind that belong together and are so used
NOTES:
Similar definitions are: 1) an abstract collection of numbers or symbols; 2) several exercises intended to be done in series. "Set" can also be a verb that means: 1) locate; 2) insert; 3) arrange attractively; 4) decide upon or fix definitely; 5) get ready for a particular purpose; 6) establish as the highest level. As an adjective, "set" means 1) converted to solid form; 2) fixed and unmoving; 3) on the point of or strongly disposed to.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The two conversations involve almost entirely different sets of hashtags, links and “hub” accounts.
—Forbes (Feb 20, 2014)
setting
the context and environment in which something is set
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Whether tucked in an urban setting or deep within a national forest, these trails can power up your fitness routine in a number of ways.
—Southern Living (Feb 18, 2014)

show
provide evidence for
NOTES:
The chosen definition gives a strong use of the verb, but "show" can also refer to a vague action that means "give expression to" or "make visible or noticeable" (compare with "indicate").
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Other studies show that when people don’t have to worry about health insurance, they are up to 25 percent more likely to change jobs.
—New York Times (Feb 20, 2014)
signal
communicate silently and non-verbally by signals or signs
NOTES:
The newly created Qualcomm logo is signal ("notably out of the ordinary") because it uses the letter Q and replaces the bottom stroke with the symbol of a lightning bolt. A dropped signal ("an electric quantity whose modulation represents coded information") could be a signal ("any incitement to action") to use Qualcomm's Quick Charge 2.0, but the need to do so signals ("be a symptom of") a phone-centric life.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Qualcomm has created a logo for both chargers and phones to signal to the consumer that both devices support the standard.
—Forbes (Feb 19, 2014)

significance
the quality of being significant
NOTES:
Breaking "significance" down, especially into its Latin roots, connects it to the previous word: "signum" means "sign" and "facere" means "to make"--something with significance contains signs that can be a stated or indirect expression of a message or a signal of its importance.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Antiques, after all, offer the intangible pleasures of beauty and historical significance rather than the guaranteed profit margins that please bean counters.
—New York Times (Feb 13, 2014)

simile
a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with `like' or `as')
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In that extraordinary simile, "her neck quaked like curd", Lizzie herself has become edible, a kind of junket.
—The Guardian (Jun 25, 2012)

skim
examine hastily
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Stone said he only has skimmed the book, though he said his wife, Livia, praised it as "surprisingly riveting" after reading all of it.
—Seattle Times (Jan 8, 2014)
solve
find the solution to (a problem or question) or understand the meaning of
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Americans love to solve the "Big Problems", he argues, such as cutting-edge innovation and overcoming the challenges of abject poverty.
—BBC (Feb 18, 2014)

source
a document (or organization) from which information is obtained
NOTES:
Wikipedia is a convenient source ("a facility where something is available") of information, but it should not be seen as the source ("the place where something begins") of knowledge, because it is a secondary source created by lots of sources ("a person who supplies information") who rely on a variety of sources (this could include "a publication that is referred to" or a primary source who had participated in or observed the event).
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
A Wikipedia article was repeatedly created and repeatedly deleted for lack of reliable sources.
—Scientific American (Feb 20, 2014)

spatial
pertaining to or involving or having the nature of space
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The math and music prodigies scored higher than the art prodigies on tests of general cultural knowledge, vocabulary, quantitative reasoning, and visual spatial ability.
—Scientific American (Feb 10, 2014)

specific
stated explicitly or in detail
NOTES:
Even if Bryce Harper has a skill that is specific to ("distinguishing something particular or special or unique") crushing walls, he, like most interviewed athletes who are members of teams, will often make general rather than specific statements about the game.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Harper always talks about improving all parts of his game but seldom mentions a specific area that needs it.
—Washington Post (Feb 19, 2014)

speculate
to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds
NOTES:
Another definition that fits the example sentence is "talk over conjecturally, or review in an idle or casual way." The Latin "specere" means "to look at" (compare with the verbs "observe" and "examine" and the noun "aspect"). Just as there are different ways of looking at something, "speculate" also has another definition that seems antonymous to the two already given: reflect deeply on a subject.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
He speculates that the scientists were investigating the possible use of malaria--transmitted via mosquitoes--as a biological weapon.
—BBC (Feb 14, 2014)

stance
a rationalized mental attitude
NOTES:
"Stance" also means "a standing posture" (from the Latin "stare" which means "to stand")--although the physical description does not fit the example sentence, it is suggested by the idea of standing behind one's stance, especially when one is the leader of a country.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The facility is part of Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott's tough stance against asylum seekers but it has come under fire over human rights concerns.
—Reuters (Feb 17, 2014)

standard
a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated
NOTES:
Compare with "common"--the two can be synonymous adjectives, but "standard" also has an antonymous definition that connects to the example sentence: widely recognized as a model of authority or excellence.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In most states, academic standards are created by educators and approved by a state board of education or education agency.
—Washington Post (Feb 20, 2014)

state
the way something is with respect to its main attributes
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
"Now it will be possible to have near real-time updates of the state of the world's forests, open to anyone to use."
—Scientific American (Feb 20, 2014)

statement
a message that is stated or declared; a communication (oral or written) setting forth particulars or facts etc
NOTES:
"Statement" also means "an assertion offered as evidence that something is true"--both definitions fit, since the words in quotation marks are the actual statement, but the underlying message the Ukrainian President gives in posting onto his website is that his statement is true, despite accusations from the protesters.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
“Protesters broke the truce,” the President said in a statement posted on his website.
—Time (Feb 20, 2014)
strategy
an elaborate and systematic plan of action
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Keep praising middle-school kids who are struggling and their grades might never recover, he writes, because they never learn strategies to deal with failure.
—Slate (Feb 14, 2014)

structure
a thing constructed; a complex entity constructed of many parts
NOTES:
Compare with "body"--although the given definitions use different words, they are synonymous. But the Latin "struere" means "to construct" so a structure can also be something that is deliberately built to create meaning, whether it's a school, the rules within the school, the grades and classes, or the elements of knowledge arranged into subjects such as Math, English, Science, etc.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Galaxies harass one another gravitationally in high-speed fly-bys and head-on collisions, each distorting the other’s structure into unrecognizable shapes.
—Slate (Feb 20, 2014)

study
consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning
NOTES:
Compare with "examine"--the given example sentences show the verbs can be synonymous. But the words also connect to seemingly opposite actions, since "examine" can mean "question closely" or "put to the test, as for its quality" while "study" can mean "think intently and at length, as for spiritual purposes" and "apply the mind to learn and understand a subject."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Astronomers are studying how spiral galaxies could run out of gas, literally and figuratively, and turn into ellipticals.
—Slate (Feb 20, 2014)
style
a particular kind (as to appearance)
NOTES:
"Style" can also refer to any way of expression that is characteristic of music, writing, people, places, or things. And it can be directions or rules to be followed, especially editorial ones for spelling, punctuation, etc.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
An eclectic mix of musical styles have been promised across the five nights, from country legend Willie Nelson to rapper Pitbull.
—BBC (Feb 20, 2014)

subject
being under the power or sovereignty of another or others
NOTES:
The subject ("the topic of a conversation or discussion") of the article is Chinese censorship. Its main point is that the political nature of Netflix's "House of Cards" makes it subject ("likely to be affected by something") to Chinese censorship. But unlike previous releases of books, fiction, and nonfiction (which are the grammatical subjects of the example sentence), "House of Cards" has so far been shown in its original entirety.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Books, fiction and nonfiction, have also similarly been subject to stringent censorship processes before release in the Chinese market.
—New York Times (Feb 20, 2014)

subjective
taking place within the mind and modified by individual bias
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Because the changes are subjective and difficult to measure, medical professionals often do not ask patients about changes in their sense of smell.
—Scientific American (Feb 13, 2014)

subsequent
following in time or order
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
As president, Washington earned well more than subsequent presidents: his salary was 2% of the total U.S. budget in 1789.
—Time (Feb 15, 2014)

substitute
a person or thing that takes or can take the place of another
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
On their return, they were met by a jeering crowd who threw litter and rotten eggs as a substitute for confetti.
—BBC (Feb 13, 2014)

succinct
briefly giving the gist of something
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
One bulletin for Adams County included a succinct warning: "Stay away or be swept away."
—New York Times (Sep 12, 2013)

suggest
make a proposal, declare a plan for something
NOTES:
"Marry Him: The Case for Settling for Mr. Good Enough" is the title of a book that its author Lori Gottlieb hates because of the negative thoughts that the word "settle" suggests ("call to mind" or "imply as a possibility"). She suggested "How to settle for the perfect man" so that the focus is more positively on perfection, but the publisher refused, so she is now afraid people won't get past the title to read her suggestions within the book.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
We suggested so many alternate titles and they insisted on using the word “settle.”
—Salon (Feb 19, 2014)

sum
the final aggregate
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Yet what is total output but the sum of all individuals’ work?
—New York Times (Feb 1, 2014)
summarize
give a summary (of)
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
I recently wrote about a fun blog called LolMyThesis, in which self-deprecating students summarize their research findings in a single sentence.
—Slate (Jan 23, 2014)

summary
performed speedily and without formality
NOTES:
The chosen example sentence and definition are for "summary" as an adjective. As a noun, "summary" ("a brief statement that presents the main points") is directly related to the verb "summarize" and is similar to "sum" in its usual placement at the end.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
North Korean migrants and defectors returned by China regularly faced torture, detention, summary execution and forced abortion, said the report.
—Reuters (Feb 17, 2014)

support
support with evidence or authority or make more certain or confirm
NOTES:
The Latin "sub" means "from below" and "portare" means "to carry"--this idea can be seen more clearly in other definitions of "support": 1) carry the weight of; 2) argue or speak in defense of; 3) give moral or psychological aid or courage to.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Supporting this notion, several studies and systematic reviews have shown that giving kids with these disorders omega-3 supplements does not improve their symptoms.
—Slate (Feb 19, 2014)

survey
look over carefully or inspect
NOTES:
As a noun, "survey" means
1) a detailed inspection or investigation.
2) a general or comprehensive view.
3) a gathering of a sample of data or opinions considered to be representative of a whole.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The rover was designed to roam the lunar surface for three months while surveying for natural resources and sending back data.
—US News (Jan 31, 2014)

symbolize
express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The Lamb on the light side of power, and the Lion on the dark side best symbolize the power extremes.
—Forbes (Feb 4, 2014)

synonym
two words that can be interchanged in a context are said to be synonymous relative to that context
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Remember that delicious and healthy is by far not an oxymoron; the words can be more like synonyms.
—US News (Mar 28, 2013)

synthesize
combine so as to form a more complex, product
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Digital animators did motion studies, copying the movement of these animals frame by frame until they could synthesize a convincing idea of dinosaur movement.
—Nature (Dec 11, 2013)

table
a set of data arranged in rows and columns
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In addition, if the numbers in the table were correct, it looks like that Obamacare was a negative sum game.
—Economist (Jan 29, 2014)

technique
a practical method or art applied to some particular task
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
They also heard about the latest techniques for the chemical analysis of paint, which permit the analyst to nail down when a work was painted.
—Economist (Feb 20, 2014)

term
a word or expression used for some particular thing
NOTES:
The Latin "terminus" means "boundary"--this idea can be seen in the definition of "term" as "a limited period of time." In terms of ("with regard to") contracts, a term is "a stipulation or condition that defines the nature and limits of an agreement." In terms of logic, a term is "each of the two concepts being compared or related in a proposition." In terms of math, a term is "any distinct quantity contained in a polynomial."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Perhaps as a response to the times we live in, people throughout the developed world are looking for what is commonly termed “authenticity”.
—Forbes (Feb 19, 2014)

test
any standardized procedure for measuring sensitivity or memory or intelligence or aptitude or personality etc
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Too often we order unnecessary tests, to bolster revenue or to protect against lawsuits.
—New York Times (Feb 20, 2014)
theme
a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in literary or artistic work
NOTES:
"Theme" also simply means "the subject matter of a conversation or discussion"--both definitions fit the example sentence because the same theme can be found in both a poem and an interactive blog of Ms. McCray. Another unrelated definition of "theme" is "an essay, especially one written as an assignment" (compare with "composition").
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The poem seemed to hit a theme that Ms. McCray speaks of frequently: giving voice to the voiceless.
—New York Times (Feb 7, 2014)

thesis
an unproved statement put forward as a premise in an argument
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The problem with the thesis is that in setting out their claim, the authors ignore the more obvious explanation for differences in group success: history.
—Slate (Feb 12, 2014)

timeline
a sequence of related events arranged in chronological order and displayed along a line (usually drawn left to right or top to bottom)
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The several Hemingway passports, besides providing a photographic timeline of him as his hair and mustache go white, attest to his restlessness and wanderlust.
—New York Times (Feb 10, 2014)
tone
the quality of something (an act or a piece of writing) that reveals the attitudes and presuppositions of the author
NOTES:
"Tone" can also mean 1) the quality of a person's voice; 2) the general atmosphere of a place or situation--all three definitions can fit since the focus is on President Obama's televised State of the Union address. As a future presidential candidate for the opposing political party, Senator Rubio deliberately used "tone" in a vague way to avoid offending either side.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
"I appreciated the optimistic tone of the speech," Rubio, a potential 2016 Republican presidential contender, told reporters at a W

1

imitate
reproduce someone's behavior or looks
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In the final, mocking Allegro, the violinist imitates a kind of teenage cackle through crisp fast notes embellished with grace notes.
—New York Times (Jan 20, 2014)

imitate

vt (gen) imitar, copiar; (for fun) imitar: he can imitate Elvis really well, sabe imitar muy bien a Elvis.

2

imply
suggest as a logically necessary consequence; in logic
NOTES:
"Imply" also means "express or state indirectly" or "suggest that someone is guilty"--neither of these definitions fits the example sentence since it directly states that a focus on sharing can lead to less consumption, and this would not be a situation that would require a suggestion of guilt.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In a consumer-oriented economy, where the idea is for people to consume, changing the paradigm to sharing would seem to imply a lot less consumption.
—Forbes (Feb 6, 2014)

imply
[ɪm'plaɪ]
1 vt (involve, entail) implicar, suponer, presuponer: the fact that you came implies you're interested, el hecho de que hayas venido implica que estás interesado.

2 vt (mean) significar, querer decir; (hint) insinuar, dar a entender: what are you implying?, ¿qué insinúas?; she didn't mean to imply that Fred was stupid, no quería dar a entender que Fred fuera un estúpido.
pt & pp implied [im'plaɪd].

3

inclined
(often followed by `to') having a preference, disposition, or tendency
NOTES:
The Latin "clinare" means "to lean"--this is more clearly seen in another definition of "inclined" ("at an angle to the horizontal or vertical position"), but it is also suggested by the chosen definition, since a preference, disposition, or tendency is a lean towards something or someone. In the example sentence, the description of Mr. Kerry's inclination means that he leans towards believing that China is inclining towards greater freedom of the Internet.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
During the meeting, Mr. Kerry sometimes seemed inclined to see a glass half full, while the bloggers were worried that it was emptying.
—New York Times (Feb 15, 2014)

inclined
[ɪn'klaɪnd]
1 adj (disposed, encouraged) dispuesto,-a (to, a): I'm inclined to believe him, estoy dispuesto a creerle; I'm inclined to agree with you, estoy bastante de acuerdo contigo; she only cleans the house when she feels inclined, sólo limpia la casa cuando le apetece.

2 adj (tending to) propenso,-a: she's inclined to be lazy, tiene tendencia a ser perezosa.

3 adj (having natural ability) dotado,-a: he's musically inclined, tiene aptitud para la música, se le da muy bien la música.

4 adj (sloping) inclinado,-a.
· to be that way inclined, ser así.
· if you feel so inclined, si quieres, si Vd quiere.

4

include
have as a part, be made up out of
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Her research includes studying various strains of itchy mice that are models for human ailments.
—New York Times (Feb 17, 2014)

include
[ɪn'kluːd]
vt incluir: the crew includes two women, la tripulación incluye dos mujeres;

government proposals include lowering taxes, entre las propuestas gubernamentales se incluye la reducción de impuestos;

the price includes post and packaging, el precio incluye gastos de envío y embalaje;

they're going to include my article, van a publicar mi artículo; all of us, myself included, decided to complain, todos nosotros, incluso yo, decidimos quejarnos; batteries are not included, las pilas no van incluidas.

5

incorporate
include or contain; have as a component
NOTES:
The Latin "corpus" means "body" and "incorporare" means "to form into a body"--this is suggested by other definitions of "incorporate": 1) make into a whole or make part of a whole; 2) unite or merge with something already in existence.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Stanford’s football team has incorporated yoga into its training program.
—New York Times (Feb 4, 2014)

incorporate
[ɪn'kɔːpəreɪt]
1 vt (make part of, include in) incorporar (in/into, a), incluir (in/into, en); (include, contain) incluir, contener:

they incorporated some of her ideas, incorporaron algunas de sus ideas;

the design incorporates the company's logo, el diseño incluye el logotipo de la empresa.

2 vt US (company) constituir , constituir en sociedad.

3 adj US (company) constituido,-a , constituido,-a en sociedad.

6

indicate
give evidence of
NOTES:
Both the chosen definition and this one of "be a signal for or a symptom of" seem to indicate that "indicate" is a strong and believable verb. But its Latin root of "dicare" which means "to proclaim or cry out" can be seen in definitions that are less sure: 1) to state or express briefly; 2) to point out a place, direction, person, or thing.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Deviations from the predicted shape of the halo would indicate that Einstein’s theory of gravity needs revision.
—New York Times (Feb 17, 2014)

indication
[ɪndɪ'keɪʃ(ə)n]
n (gen) indicio, señal f, indicación f:

there's every indication that the economy is on the upturn, todo indica que la economía está mejorando;

He gave no indication to the contrary, no dio ninguna indicación en contra.

7

indirect
having intervening factors or persons or influences
NOTES:
The potable use is indirect because it is not the drinking of water that comes from a mountain spring, but the drinking of wastewater that has been put through a multistep cleaning process. The phrase "indirect potable use" is indirect because it uses language that does not straightforwardly get to the point.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Officially this method is called indirect potable use, but it’s really water recycling.
—Time (Jan 31, 2014)

indirect
[ɪndɪ'rekt]
adj indirecto,-a:

indirect lighting, alumbrado indirecto;

an indirect route, una ruta indirecta;

she gave an indirect answer, dio una respuesta evasiva.

▪ indirect object LING objeto indirecto, complemento indirecto.
▪ indirect question LING pregunta indirecta.
▪ indirect speech LING estilo indirecto.
▪ indirect tax, impuesto indirecto.

direct
[dɪ'rekt, daɪ'rekt]
1 adj (gen) directo,-a:

a direct flight, un vuelo directo;

this is a direct result of your carelessness, esto es consecuencia directa de tu falta de atención;

there is a direct link between smoking and cancer, hay una relación directa entre el tabaco y el cáncer;

keep the plant out of direct sunlight, no expongas la planta directamente al sol.

2 adj (exact, complete) exacto,-a:

he's very sweet - the direct opposite of his wife, es encantador - la antítesis de su mujer.

3 adj (straightforward - person, manner) franco,-a, sincero,-a; (- question) directo,-a; (- answer) claro,-a.

4 adv (go, write, phone) directamente;

(broadcast) en directo: does this train go direct to Bristol?, ¿este tren va directo a Bristol?

5 vt (show the way) indicar el camino a.

6 vt (letter, parcel) mandar, dirigir.

7 vt (attention, remark) dirigir.

8 vt (traffic, organization, inquiry) dirigir.

9 vt (play, actors) dirigir.

10 vt fml (order, command) ordenar.

11 vi (play, actors) dirigir.
· to be a direct descendent of somebody, ser descendiente directo,-a de alguien, descender de alguien por línea directa.
· to make/score a direct hit, dar en el blanco.
▪ direct current, corriente f continua.
▪ direct debit, domiciliación f de pagos.
▪ direct object, complemento directo.
▪ direct speech, estilo directo.

8

infer
reason by deduction; establish by deduction
NOTES:
Compare with "deduce"--the example sentences and chosen definitions show the verbs as synonymous.

But they can also be antonymous, since:

"deduce" means "reason from the general to the particular"

while "infer" means "draw from specific cases for more general cases"--this makes a deduction seem more credible than an inference, especially since "infer" can also mean "solve by guessing."

EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
For instance, since infants look longer at events that surprise them, developmental psychologists can use gaze time to infer the predictions of preverbal children.
—Scientific American (Jan 28, 2014)

infer
[ɪn'fεː(r)]
vt inferir (from, de), deducir (from, de).
pt & pp inferred, ger inferring.

deduce
[dɪ'djuːs]
vt deducir (from, de), inferir (from, de).

9

influence
a power to affect persons or events especially power based on prestige etc
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
They want to purge Thailand of the influence of her divisive brother, Thaksin Shinawatra, who they claim continues to run the country by proxy.
—Time (Feb 18, 2014)

influence
['ɪnflʊəns]
1 n (gen) influencia:

he used his influence to get his son a job, se valió de su influencia para conseguir un trabajo para su hijo;

television has had a great influence on our lives, la televisión ha tenido mucha influencia en nuestras vidas;

you're a bad influence on me, ejerces una mala influencia sobre mí;

it's easy to see his musical influences, sus influencias musicales son evidentes.

2 vt (decision etc) influir en/sobre; (person) influenciar:

I don't want to influence your decision, no quiero influir en tu decisión;

she's been influenced by her parents, sus padres la han influenciado.

· to be easily influenced, ser influenciable.
· to be under the influence (of alcohol), estar bajo la influencia del alcohol, estar bajo los efectos del alcohol.

▪ influence peddling, tráfico de influencias.

10

inform
impart knowledge of some fact, state or affairs, or event to
NOTES:
"Inform" has another meaning that connects to the verb "form": "give character or essence to"--both definitions fit the example sentence, since the scientific results both provide information and form the character of future experimental searches.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The results lay the groundwork for future microscopic models and inform the experimental search for such materials.
—Science Magazine (Feb 6, 2014)

inform
[ɪn'fɔːm]
1 vt informar, notificar, avisar:

please inform your teacher if you're going to be away, por favor informa a tu profesor si vas a faltar;

kindly keep me informed, por favor manténganme al corriente; why was I not informed?, ¿por qué no me avisaron?

2 to inform against/on vi denunciar a, delatar a:

he informed on his mates, denunció a sus colegas.

· to inform OS, informarse.

11

inquire
conduct an inquiry or investigation of
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
So from time to time it’s good to take the focus off yourself and inquire into those around you a little more deeply.
—Forbes (Dec 30, 2013)

inquire
[ɪn'kwaɪə(r)]
1 vt fml (ask) preguntar:

he inquired my name, me preguntó el nombre;

I inquired the way to the station, pregunté el camino hasta la estación.

2 vi (ask for information) preguntar (about, por); (find out) averiguar (about, -), informarse (about, de):

I'll inquire, preguntaré, me informaré; she inquired about train times, preguntó por el horario de los trenes;

there was a man inquiring after you, vino un hombre que preguntaba por ti.

• to inquire into
vt insep investigar.
· to inquire something of somebody, preguntar algo a alguien.
· "inquire within", "razón aquí".

12

instruction
a message describing how something is to be done
NOTES:
"Instruction" also means "activities that impart knowledge or skill"--both definitions fit the example sentence, since the writer was learning how to fly on a trapeze.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The instructor gave some very basic instructions for what sounded like some very advanced moves.
—Salon (Feb 7, 2014)

instruction
[ɪn'strʌkʃ(ə)n]
1 n (teaching) instrucción f, enseñanza.

2 n (order) orden f, mandato, instrucción f: I'm just going on the boss's instructions, sólo cumplo órdenes del jefe.

3 instructions npl (information) instrucciones fpl:

have you read the instructions?, ¿has leído las instrucciones?.

· "instructions for use", "modo de empleo", "instrucciones de uso".
· "operating instructions", "instrucciones de funcionamiento".

13

integrate
make into a whole or make part of a whole
NOTES:
The example sentence describes integrating maps with search, but integration can also produce 1) a whole society that is open to members of all races and ethnic groups; 2) a whole number (through a calculus operation).
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
"That's why they're integrating maps with search. When you search for Peking duck, you're seeing nearby restaurants in your results."
—Reuters (Jan 29, 2014)

integrate
['ɪntɪgreɪt]
1 vt integrar (into/with, en), incorporar (into/with, a):

they've integrated computer technology into the school curriculum, han incorporado informática al plan de estudios del centro;

we should integrate all ethnic minorities into society, deberíamos integrar a todas las minorías étnicas en la sociedad.

2 vt MATH integrar.

3 vi integrarse (into/with, en), incorporarse (into/with, a):

some immigrants integrate very quickly into the community, algunos inmigrantes se integran con gran rapidez en la comunidad.

integral
['ɪntɪgrəl]
1 adj (intrinsic, essential) integral, esencial, fundamental: elections are an integral part of democracy, las elecciones son parte integral de la democracia.

2 adj (built-in) incorporado,-a.

3 adj MATH integral.
4 n MATH integral f.
▪ integral calculus, cálculo integral.

integrity
[ɪn'tegrətɪ]
1 n (honesty) integridad f, honradez f: a man of integrity, un hombre de integridad.
2 n (completeness) totalidad f: the integrity of the nation, la totalidad de la nación.

14

intent
the intended meaning of a communication
NOTES:
As a noun, "intent" is also a shorter version of "intention" and as an adjective, it means "giving or marked by complete attention to."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Whatever the intent, the sample never meshes with its soundtrack, and never inspires thought deeper than “radio evangelists were probably mistaken about rock ‘n’ roll.”
—Time (Jan 24, 2014)

intent
[ɪn'tent]
1 adj (look etc) atento,-a.

2 adj (determined) decidido,-a, resuelto,-a, empeñado,-a:

she's intent on winning the race, está decidida a ganar la carrera; he's intent on becoming President, tiene el firme propósito de llegar a ser presidente.

3 adj (absorbed) absorto,-a, concentrado,-a: I was intent on my work, estaba concentrado en mi trabajo.

4 n intención f, propósito: a declaration of intent, una declaración de intenciones;

with intent to kill, con la intención de matar.

· to all intents (and purposes), a todos los efectos.
· to loiter with intent, merodear con fines delictivos.

resolve
[rɪ'zɒlv]
1 n resolución f.
2 vt resolver.

15

intention
an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Satisfied with this initial success rate, the researchers then expanded their efforts with the intention of producing a few fully developed baby monkeys.
—Scientific American (Jan 31, 2014)

intention
[ɪn'tenʃ(ə)n]
n (purpose, aim, plan, determination) intención f, propósito:

I have no intention of staying in this place another day, no pienso quedarme aquí otro día más, no tengo intención de quedarme aquí otro día más;

she had every intention of going, tenía la firme intención de asistir;

he's full of good intentions, está lleno de buenas intenciones;

his intentions are strictly honourable, sus intenciones son totalmente honradas.

· to do something with the best of intentions, hacer algo con buena voluntad.

16

interact
act together or towards others or with others
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The law of combinations applies when there are many interacting people or objects.
—Scientific American (Feb 14, 2014)

interact
[ɪntər'ækt]
1 vi (people) relacionarse, interaccionar.
2 vi CHEM reaccionar.

17

intermittent
stopping and starting at irregular intervals
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Instead of intermittent reports, people would be able to record a steady stream of data and get warnings when they need them most.
—BusinessWeek (Feb 4, 2014)

intermittent
[ɪntə'mɪt(ə)nt]
adj intermitente: intermittent showers, chubascos ocasionales.

18

mechanism

People like Phil Anderson developed this mechanism for understanding superconductivity

mechanism
['mekənɪz(ə)m]
n mecanismo.

19

interpret
make sense of; assign a meaning to
NOTES:
"Interpret" also means "make sense of a language" and "give an explanation to"--all three definitions fit, because 1) the Bible's many translations through time, cultures, and languages have an effect on meaning; 2) the many books of the Bible include a mix of historical events, divine miracles, and parables, which many scholars from different disciplines have devoted themselves to sorting and explaining.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Interpreting the Bible is a little like studying Leonardo DaVinci’s painting of the Last Supper, he says.
—Time (Feb 11, 2014)

A

20

introduce
bring in a new person or object into a familiar environment
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The Girl Scouts recently introduced a gluten-free chocolate chip shortbread cookie to their annually anticipated line of sweet treats.
—New York Times (Feb 17, 2014)

A

21

introduction
the first section of a communication
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
“Voting in elections is considered sacrosanct by a large majority of Indians,” Mukulika Banerjee writes in the introduction to her new book, “Why India Votes.”
—New York Times (Jan 20, 2014)

A

22

invariably
without variation or change, in every case
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Invariably, around February of each year, coinciding with Black History Month, you’ll hear people asking, “Why isn’t there a white history month?”
—Salon (Feb 6, 2014)

A

23

investigate
conduct an inquiry or investigation of
NOTES:
Compare with "inquire"--the two verbs have synonymous definitions, but as shown by the example sentences and Latin roots ("quaerere" means "to ask" and "vestigare" means "to track"), an investigation often involves more following and follow-through.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The Silkworm will follow the private investigator Cormoran Strike, who Rowling introduced in Cuckoo, as he investigates the murder of a novelist.
—Time (Feb 17, 2014)

A

24

involve
contain as a part
NOTES:
"Involve" also means "require as useful, just, or proper" and "engage as a participant"--all three definitions fit the example sentence, because the Navy scientists needed the whales to conduct the study of how sonar affects marine mammals, but some whales were shy and required years to find and tag before they could participate (compare with the definition and example sentence for "include").
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The studies involved only a small group of tagged whales and noise levels were less intense than what's used by the Navy.
—US News (Dec 15, 2013)

A

25

irony
incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Irony is in plentiful supply in Thailand today: A billionaire tycoon is praised as the champion of the poor.
—New York Times (Feb 8, 2014)

A

26

irrelevant
having no bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Most of the time you see a doctor, you would have gotten better anyway and his actions or advice are irrelevant.
—Economist (Jan 29, 2014)

A

27

isolate
set apart from others
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
“We are imprisoning, we are isolating, but we are not rehabilitating the way we should.”
—New York Times (Feb 16, 2014)

A

28

italic
a typeface with letters slanting upward to the right
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
With emphasis in italics and bold face, he added: “We need you to focus on our primary mission of defending our nation and our allies.”
—Washington Post (Jun 27, 2013)

A

29

judge
judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time)
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Because judges are all entrenched in their sports’ insular communities, they develop relationships with the athletes and coaches they must later judge.
—Washington Post (Feb 16, 2014)

A

30

list
include in a list
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Lab websites also often list research projects, publications, data sets, software, job openings, collaborators and contact information.
—Nature (Feb 12, 2014)

A

31

literal
limited to the explicit meaning of a word or text
NOTES:
The example sentence refers to technologies that can be figuratively mind-blowing because they seem like unbelievable images from a science fiction movie. But the technologies can also be literally mind-blowing because, now available in the U.S., are bionic eyes that combine a Google Glass device with a tiny electrode that is attached to a membrane that's connected to a nerve that leads to the brain.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Either way it is going to be mind-blowing, quite possibly in a literal sense.
—BBC (Dec 2, 2013)

A

32

locate
discover the location of; determine the place of; find by searching or examining
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In a conversation, O’Reilly author Matthew Gast suggested that you could extend the concept to develop a collar that would help to locate missing pets.
—Forbes (Feb 7, 2014)

A

33

logical
based on known statements or events or conditions
NOTES:
"Logical" also means "marked by an orderly and coherent relation of parts" (compare with the synonymous "coherent")--this does not fit the example sentence, since the laughter was caused by the students' recognition that the logic of this statement "In order to function at your mental and physical best, adolescents should be getting at least nine hours of sleep a night" does not relate to reality.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
For many students, nine hours of sleep is so far beyond their reality that their only logical response is laughter.
—New York Times (Jan 15, 2014)

A

34

main...vs: irrevelant....tangential
most important element
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The main reason banknotes get dirty is that they pick up an oily substance called sebum from human skin.
—Economist (Jan 16, 2014)

A

35

margin/marginal
the blank space that surrounds the text on a page
NOTES:
In referring to statistics, a margin of error is "a permissible difference." In referring to economics, a profit margin is "the net sales minus the cost of goods and services."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In a Portuguese songbook, written around 1600, images along the margins look like Australian aboriginals and possibly a kangaroo.
—New York Times (Jan 23, 2014)

A

36

mean
denote or connote
NOTES:
The name "Champions of Jerusalem" has denotative (literal) and connotative (secondary and often suggestive) meanings. It denotes winning, but it connotes the bloody contest over the holy city. It denotes "a defender, advocate, or supporter of a cause" which leads to another definition of "warrior" which again connotes the bloody wars that have been fought over the city. In claiming responsibility for attacks, the organization deliberately connects to all meanings.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The al-Qaeda-inspired militant organisation, whose name means "Champions of Jerusalem", has increasingly turned its attacks against the Egyptian police and army.
—BBC (Feb 18, 2014)

A

37

measure
determine the measurements of something or somebody, take measurements of
NOTES:
The example sentence and chosen definition show "measure" in its connection to accuracy, which can also be seen in these definitions: 1) a container of standard capacity to obtain fixed amounts; 2) instrument having a sequence of marks at regular intervals. But "measure" can also be an uncertain estimate of the nature, quality, ability, or significance of something. And it can be "any maneuver made as part of progress toward a goal."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The pacifier device she and her colleagues used measures the pressure and rhythm of sucking.
—Reuters (Feb 18, 2014)

A

38

key
serving as an essential component
NOTES:
"Key" has other definitions that might be used in the classroom: 1) a list of answers to a test (which teachers might keep under lock and key); 2) a list of words or phrases explaining symbols or abbreviations; 3) something crucial for explaining.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Being as lean as possible and maintaining a healthy weight are key components of cancer prevention.
—Washington Post (Feb 18, 2014)

A

39

label
a brief description given for purposes of identification
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
"Corn is a big problem. It is really really difficult to produce seed corn that would meet the current non-GMO verified label."
—Reuters (Feb 18, 2014)

A

40

likely
has a good chance of being the case or of coming about
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Boys are also more than two-thirds more likely than girls to be born prematurely--before the 37th week of pregnancy.
—Scientific American (Feb 18, 2014)

A

41

metaphor
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
After a while, it becomes clear that the tightrope is also a metaphor, standing for the existential risk inherent in every serious instance of playing.
—New York Times (Jan 30, 2014)

A

42

method
a way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps)
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The children or their parents answered questions about what they ate or drank the previous day, a common method researchers use to assess Americans' diets.
—Seattle Times (Feb 10, 2014)

A

43

model
representation of something (sometimes on a smaller scale)
NOTES:
If an Art teacher asks you to model, you could "assume a posture" or form something out of clay, wax, etc. If an English teacher hands you a model essay, you should examine it to see what is "worthy of imitation" and then "plan or create according to the example."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
A working computer model of living cells, even if it were somewhat sketchy and not quite accurate, would be a fantastically useful tool.
—Scientific American (Jan 6, 2014)

A

44

modify
cause to change; make different; cause a transformation
NOTES:
"Modify" also means "add a word or phrase to qualify or limit the meaning of"--in the example sentence, "British" is an adjective that qualifies (specifies a characteristic of) the scientists; "genetically" is an adverb that characterizes how the potatoes were changed; "genetically modified" is an adjectival phrase that limits the types of potatoes that are blight-resistant.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
British scientists have developed genetically modified potatoes that are resistant to the vegetable's biggest threat--blight.
—BBC (Feb 16, 2014)

A

45

monitor
keep tabs on; keep an eye on; keep under surveillance
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Only in the past decade have scientists had the technology to closely monitor the behavior of whales and dolphins.
—US News (Dec 16, 2013)

A

46

motivation
the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
One never knows which “failure” will be the tipping point for an adolescent toward more effort, self-reflection, assuming responsibility, in a word, discovering inner motivation.
—Slate (Feb 14, 2014)

A

47

narrative
a message that tells the particulars of an act or occurrence or course of events; presented in writing or drama or cinema or as a radio or television program
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
There are fiery chases and hectic brawls, and a crowd of famous voices simultaneously enacting and lampooning the standard cartoon-quest narrative of heroic self-discovery.
—New York Times (Feb 6, 2014)

A

48

narrator
someone who tells a story
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Using the "stream of consciousness" technique, her book begins with its narrator speaking from inside her mother's womb.
—BBC (Nov 14, 2013)

A

49

never
not ever; at no time in the past or future
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
He recalled a proverb he had to translate from Latin as a schoolchild: "He plants the seeds of trees he'll never see bearing fruit."
—BBC (Feb 18, 2014)

A

50

notation
a comment or instruction (usually added)
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has added Tamiflu OS to the list of resolved drug shortages on its website with the notation "no supply issues anticipated."
—Reuters (Jan 16, 2014)

A

51

note
a short personal letter
NOTES:
A similar definition is "a brief written record." Similar in spelling to "notation" and "notice" it has definitions in common with both (it can be both a noun and verb). In describing people, "note" can mean 1) high status importance owing to marked superiority; 2) a characteristic emotional quality; 3) a tone of voice that shows what the speaker is feeling.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Then, suddenly, trouble looms when Philip starts receiving notes in his dead wife’s handwriting.
—New York Times (Feb 18, 2014)

A

52

notice
discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In most cases, artifacts found at construction sites are destroyed by equipment before anyone even notices them, Horner said.
—Washington Post (Feb 16, 2014)

A

53

objective
the goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable)
NOTES:
In simply stating the objective of the Affordable Care Act, the example sentence is being objective ("undistorted by emotion or personal bias").
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
A prime objective of the Affordable Care Act is to bring down America’s health-care costs, which are the highest per person in the world.
—Seattle Times (Feb 1, 2014)

A

54

observe
observe with care or pay close attention to
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The study was conducted in Thailand, and the researchers observed the behavior of 26 elephants in captivity over the course of a year.
—Scientific American (Feb 18, 2014)

A

55

occur
come to pass
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
She will testify that former Superintendent Beverly Hall ordered the destruction of investigative documents that concluded the cheating likely occurred, according to prosecutors.
—Reuters (Feb 18, 2014)

A

56

opinion
a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Sharing views about pop culture is also common, with a median of 73% saying they use social networks to post opinions on music and movies.
—Time (Feb 13, 2014)

A

57

oppose
be against; express opposition to
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Many environmentalists believe that fracking can damage water supplies, and oppose the extraction of new fossil fuel resources.
—BBC (Feb 13, 2014)

A

58

optional
possible but not necessary; left to personal choice
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The course is largely taught through online videos, but enrolled students are also given quizzes, optional food-preparation assignments and opportunities to collaborate with classmates.
—New York Times (Jan 13, 2014)

A

59

order
logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements
NOTES:
In order of possibility, here are some orders you might receive in the classroom: 1) arrange thoughts, ideas, temporal events; 2) assign a rank or rating to; 3) bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; 4) give instructions to or direct somebody to do something; 5) make a request for something.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Seven models make both lists of the top 10 selling cars nationally and in California, though the order of the vehicles is scrambled.
—Chicago Tribune (Feb 15, 2014)

A

60

organize
cause to be structured or ordered or operating according to some principle or idea
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
School’s strict structure—its clear schedules, clean tiles, bells and clocks—allowed me to feel organized, cared for and seen.
—New York Times (Feb 18, 2014)

A

61

origin
an event that is a beginning; a first part or stage of subsequent events
NOTES:
"Origin" has its origin ("the source of something's existence or from which it derives") in the Latin verb "oriri" which means "to rise"--this gives the sense that things and people, no matter their origins, have an upward movement through space and time.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Since the origin of life on earth 3.8 billion years ago, our planet has experienced five mass extinction events.
—New York Times (Feb 10, 2014)


A

62

outline
describe roughly or briefly or give the main points or summary of
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In his speech, Mr Obama outlined his priority topics for the year, including healthcare, minimum wage and the pullout from Afghanistan.
—BBC (Jan 30, 2014)

A

63

pace...cadence
the relative speed of progress or change
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Man is the culprit, and the pace of species die-off is accelerating at a rate unprecented in the history of life on earth.
—Seattle Times (Feb 14, 2014)

A

64

paraphrase
express the same message in different words
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
He paraphrased a quotation attributed to Albert Einstein: “If an idea is not absurd, there is no hope for it.”
—New York Times (Dec 5, 2013)

A

65

participation
the act of sharing in the activities of a group
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Scientists have also noted what are called “mirror neurons” in our brains, activated not just by participation in sports, but by watching others participate.
—Seattle Times (Feb 15, 2014)

A

66

passage
a section of text; particularly a section of medium length
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Since then, he says, he has filed some 10 lawsuits involving "objectionable passages" from various textbooks.
—BBC (Feb 12, 2014)

A

67

pattern
a customary way of operation or behavior
NOTES:
Other definitions of "pattern" make it synonymous with "example" and "model" including 1) something regarded as a normative example; 2) something intended as a guide for making something else. A pattern can also be a design of natural or accidental origin (such as a snowflake) or that is artistic or decorative (such as plaid).
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Florida Atlantic won the contract to produce the water resistance measurements after doing similar work predicting drift patterns of floating items in oceans.
—US News (Dec 8, 2013)

A

68

perform
carry out or perform an action
NOTES:
In addition to performing everyday tasks, the human hand and foot can be used to "give a dramatic or musical entertainment."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Both the human hand and foot represent a triumph of complex engineering, exquisitely designed to perform a range of tasks.
—BBC (Feb 18, 2014)

A

69

perspective
a way of regarding situations or topics etc.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The Cubs hired Renteria because of a cheerful perspective that helps him communicate with young players—especially a strong Latin American contingent.
—Chicago Tribune (Feb 17, 2014)

A

70

persuade
cause somebody to adopt a certain position, belief, or course of action; twist somebody's arm
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Health workers and officials have tried for years to persuade conservative Muslims to accept vaccination.
—Washington Post (Feb 13, 2014)

A

71

place
put into a certain place or abstract location
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
That would place liability for hacks squarely on the sellers’ shoulders.
—Economist (Jan 23, 2014)

A

72

plagiarism
the act of plagiarizing; taking someone's words or ideas as if they were your own
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Brush up on the definition of plagiarism and the reason we give others credit for their work.
—New York Times (Dec 19, 2013)

A

73

plan
make plans for something
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
To help people understand the importance of savings, many organizations are planning events for America Saves Week, Monday through March 1.
—Washington Post (Feb 18, 2014)

A

74

plausible
apparently reasonable and valid, and truthful
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Thor—and the mechanics that drive his flight—is surprisingly plausible; so is the way a dragon from The Hobbit could breathe fire.
—Scientific American (Jan 7, 2014)

A

75

plot
the story that is told in a novel or play or movie etc.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
But minor characters just sort of die off, while major character deaths usually serve an important purpose in the plot.
—Time (Feb 16, 2014)

A

76

point
an isolated fact that is considered separately from the whole
NOTES:
For further thought, I will point out other definitions that might apply in a classroom: 1) indicate a place, direction, person, or thing; 2) a brief version of the essential meaning of something; 3) an outstanding characteristic; 4) the object of an activity; 5) a style in speech or writing that arrests attention; 6) the precise location of something; 7) a specific identifiable position in a continuum or series.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
But their findings suggest at least two points for further thought.
—Economist (Jan 29, 2014)

A

77

point of view
a mental position from which things are viewed
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
“We have different points of view but we learned the art of compromise and that comes out of mutual respect.”
—New York Times (Feb 4, 2014)

A

78

portray
portray in words
NOTES:
In Latin, "protrahere" means "to reveal"--this can be done through words (written or acted) or pictures.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The book is a fast read and it does a very good job portraying the colorful personalities and exciting discoveries unearthed by general relativity.
—Scientific American (Feb 5, 2014)

A

79

possible
capable of happening or existing
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
U.S. officials say, however, it is possible a U.N. resolution to help relieve the humanitarian crisis in Syria could get through the U.N.
—Reuters (Feb 18, 2014)

A

80

preclude
make impossible, especially beforehand
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
He said that strong trade ties did not in themselves preclude the outbreak of war.
—BBC (Feb 5, 2014)

A

81

predict
make a prediction about; tell in advance
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The company is also exploring medical devices and sensors that can help predict heart attacks by studying sound blood makes as it flows through arteries.
—Reuters (Feb 18, 2014)

A

82

prefix
an affix that is added in front of the word
NOTES:
Here, "prefix" is used to mean "a title placed before one's name." The prefix in "prefix" is "pre" which means "before" so as a noun, "prefix" could be any element that is attached to the beginning of a word; as a verb, "prefix" (the accent is on the second syllable) means "to settle or arrange in advance."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
In traditional Afghan society religious scholars have a lot of influence--they usually use the prefix of Mullah, Maulawi or Maulana before their names.
—BBC (Nov 18, 2013)

A

83

prepare
to prepare verbally, either for written or spoken delivery
NOTES:
The Latin prefix "prae" means "before" and the verb "parare" means "to get ready." The idea of preparation can apply to a variety of purposes, whether it's planning for the delivery of legal arguments, studying for an upcoming test, training for a future role, or heating up foods for eating.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
For serious felonies, defenders spent an average of only nine hours preparing their cases, compared with the 47 hours they needed, the study found.
—New York Times (Feb 18, 2014)

A

84

presume
take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof
NOTES:
Compare with "assume"--the chosen example sentences and definitions show the verbs to be synonymous. Both come from the Latin verb "sumere" which means "to take" but their different prefixes are clues to other definitions: "ad" means "to" so "assume" can mean to take to oneself a form, power, or garment; "prae" means "before" so "presume" can mean to take an action before asking for permission.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Though we never see her there, I presume she takes classes and participates in extracurriculars and goes to college parties.
—Time (Feb 17, 2014)w

A

85

B

preview
a screening for a select audience in advance of release for the general public
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Instead of trying to surprise viewers, many sponsors are filling social-media platforms with previews, teasers and coming attractions in hopes of stimulating additional interest.
—New York Times (Jan 17, 2014)

previous
just preceding something else in time or order
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
"Teenagers are motivated to make a difference in their community but the approach they take is radically different to previous generations," said Mr Birdwell.
—BBC (Feb 18, 2014)

primary
of first rank or importance or value; direct and immediate rather than secondary
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
But the show’s primary model is the granddaddy of weepy teenage melodramas, “Romeo and Juliet.”
—New York Times (Feb 16, 2014)

prior
earlier in time
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
That said, most “open houses” were not particularly open, requiring advance registration several months prior, and spots filled up immediately.
—New York Times (Feb 18, 2014)

probably
with considerable certainty; without much doubt
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Whatever you guess you think you will need in time and money, add 50-100% more and you are probably hitting the target.
—Forbes (Feb 19, 2014)

procedure
a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Designed to keep hunger strikers alive, the procedure involves feeding them liquid meals via tubes inserted into their noses and down into their stomachs.
—Reuters (Feb 11, 2014)

process
perform mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to programmed instructions in order to obtain the required information
NOTES:
As a noun, "process" is synonymous with "procedure" (both come from the Latin "procedere" which means "to go forward"); this meaning is implied with the phrase "what's ahead" which refers to the free agency process. Used as a verb here, "process" can also mean "deal with in a routine way" but the chosen definition suggests that Tillman's "performance of some composite cognitive activity" connects to calculations involving salary, age, playing time, etc.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Chicago Bears cornerback Charles Tillman knows what’s ahead and is processing it all with a combination of calm and perspective.
—Chicago Tribune (Feb 19, 2014)

produce
bring forth or yield
NOTES:
"Produce" also means 1) come to have or undergo a change of; 2) cultivate by growing; 3) cause to happen, occur, or exist; 4) create or manufacture a man-made product--all five definitions can mostly fit here because scientists sliced DNA strands, injected them into fertilized eggs, and encouraged the growth of embryos with the intent of implanting them into females to produce macaque monkey babies with genetic profiles similar to sick humans (for use in future experiments).
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The manipulation produced 15 normally developing embryos—of which all but one showed evidence of the desired genetic changes.
—Scientific American (Jan 31, 2014)
profile
biographical sketch
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Job seekers fill out profiles with years of experience, languages spoken and salary requirements.
—BBC (Feb 17, 2014)

project
any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted
NOTES:
In Latin, "pro" means "forth" and "jacere" means "to throw"--this idea of forward motion can be seen more clearly in the definitions of "project" as a verb: 1) throw, send, or cast forward; 2) make or work out a plan for; 3) cause to be heard; 4) present for consideration, examination, criticism, etc.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The project, which is named after the Greek mythological character Pheme--famed for spreading rumours--will run for three years.
—BBC (Feb 19, 2014)

prompt
serve as the inciting cause of
NOTES:
"Prompt" may be used as a pun here, since as an adjective, it describes how enrollment within the new healthcare system should have proceeded: "according to schedule or without delay."
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
The delay may prompt many healthy people to put off signing up for coverage.
—Economist (Feb 13, 2014)

proofread
read for errors
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Projects that require paying close attention to detail, like proofreading a paper or doing your taxes, Dr. Mehta said, are performed better in quiet environments.
—New York Times (Jun 21, 2013)

property
a basic or essential attribute shared by all members of a class
NOTES:
The Latin "proprietas" means "ownership"--this meaning can apply to physical things that can be owned as well as to abstract constructs that belong to and distinguish objects or individuals.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Physicists recognized that the same stew of quantum processes that determine the properties of electrons and other particles would grant energy to empty space.
—Slate (Feb 18, 2014)

propose
present for consideration, examination, criticism, etc.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
One proposed establishing an ostrich farm, and another suggested converting trash into accessories and furniture.
—New York Times (Feb 17, 2014)

prose
ordinary writing as distinguished from verse
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
A drunken row over the merits of literary forms in Russia ended in a poetry-lover stabbing a champion of prose to death, investigators say.
—BBC (Jan 29, 2014)

prove
establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Nuclear experts say the new results should help give the giant laser more time to prove its ultimate worth and gain more taxpayer support.
—New York Times (Feb 12, 2014)

purpose
what something is used for
NOTES:
Although spelled differently, "purpose" and "propose" come from the same Latin verb "proponere" which means "to put forward"--this meaning can be seen in other definitions of "purpose": 1) an anticipated outcome that guides your planned actions (compare with "intention"); 2) the quality of being determined to do or achieve something.
EXAMPLE SENTENCE:
Iran rejects Western allegations that it is seeking a nuclear weapons capability and says it is enriching uranium only for electricity generation and medical purposes.
—Reuters (Feb 19, 2014)