3.6.3. Lung Pathology - ADDITIONAL STUFF NOT IN PATHOMA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.6.3. Lung Pathology - ADDITIONAL STUFF NOT IN PATHOMA Deck (24)
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1

Subclassifications of pulmonary edema

Can be subclassified into cardiogenic or non-cardiogenic

2

Non-cardiogenic → due to _______.

Non-cardiogenic → due to alveolar wall injury

injury to capillary endothelial cells and/or alveolar epithelial cells

3

Recall: Edema caused by __________________.

Recall: Edema caused by a change in pressure differential at exchange points

4

congestion of capillaries create a ___ ____ appearance

congestion of capillaries create a foggy red appearance

5

For ARDS, xray signs tend to be more prominent in the ____ portion of the lungs

lower

6

What is DAD

Diffuse alveolar Damage

Seen in ARDS

7

What is paraseptal emphysema?

A magical third type that the boards don't care about but USUHS does.

Occurs in young adults with spontaneous pneumothorax (this is the emphysema related to the rupturing bleb we heard about)

That "bleb" can be a large bullae greater than 1cm in diamter and is more severe in the upper lung

8

Sarcoidosis is an example of this type of hypersensitivity

Type IV

9

80% of mesothelioma cases have this genetic abnormality

80% of cases have homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/INK4a on Chrom 9p

10

Asbestos vs. Silicon and coal

Asbestos is from the roof (common in insulation) but affects the base (lower lobes). Silica and coal are from the base (earth) but affect the roof (upper lobes)

11

What is rhinosinusitis and how does it present?

obstructive sinus drainage into nasal cavity -> inflammation and pain over affected area (typically maxillary sinus in adults)

12

Most common cause of rhinosinusitis

most common cause is viral URI; may cause superimposed bacterial infection caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, or M. catarrhalis

13

Virchow Triad

stasis

hypercoagulability (e.g. defect in coagulation cascade proteins, most commonly factor V Leiden)

endothelial damage (exposed collagen triggers clotting cascade)

14

What does Virchow Triad predispose people to?

DVT

15

What is the Homan sign?

Homan sign - dorsiflexion of foot -> calf pain

16

Drugs used for a DVT

use heparin for prevention and acute management; use warfarin for long-term prevention of DVT clearance

17

Types of emboli that can lead to DVT

FAT BAT (Thank you FA)

fat: associated with long bone fractures and liposuction: presents as triad of hypoxemia, neurologic abnormalities, and petechial rash

amniotic fluid: fluid emboli that can lead to DIC esp. postpartum

thrombus

bacteria

air: nitrogen bubbles precipitate in ascending divers; treat with hyperbaric oxygen

Tumor

18

Presentation for sleep apnea

repeated cessation of breathing > 10 sec. during sleep -> disrupted sleep -> daytime somnolence. Normal PaO2 during the day.

19

Nocturnal hypoxia

Nocturnal hypoxia -> systemic/pulmonary hypertension, arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation/flutter), and sudden death

20

What is central sleep apnea

Central sleep apnea: no respiratory effort

21

Obstructive sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea: respiratory effort against airway obstruction. Associated with obesity and loud snoring

22

Obesity hypoventilation

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m^2)-> hypoventilation -> decreased PaO2 and increased PaCO2 on waking hours

23

What paraneoplastic syndromes can be caused by Small Cell Carcinoma?

Cushings
Hyponatremia

24

What is a pancoast tumor and what does it cause?

Carcinoma that occurs in the apex of lung and may affect cervical sympathetic plexus, causing Horner syndrome (ipsilateral ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis), SVC syndrome, sensorimotor deficits, and hoarseness.