3A/B Psych Others: Social Psychology ( Group Behaviour) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3A/B Psych Others: Social Psychology ( Group Behaviour) Deck (18):
1

Group

- 2 or more ppl
- Interact w/ and influence each other
- Share a common purpose

2

Group Co-operation

- Interaction and influence of other ppl
- Share a common goal

3

Behaviour in Groups

- Behave differently in groups compared to when by self.

- Due to presence of others

--> Can heighten arousal & diminish responsibility

4

Group Behaviour

- Deindividuation
-> Abandoning usual constraints to join in group behaviour
-> Due to anonymity and shift in attention

5

Zimbardo on Group Behaviour

- Anonymity
- Examined impact of de-individuation on students willingness to deliver electric shocks

- Compared behaviour of college students w/
-> 1. Identities concealed, wore same clothes
-> 2. Normal Clothing and name tags

Results
-> Anonymous students prep. to deliver stronger shocks
-> Due to power on individual normals being undermined by being unidentifiable

6

De-individuation Experiment

- Reicher (1987)
- Increases awareness of social norms
- Positive social norms = positive group behaviour

- Johnson and Downing (1979)
- Two groups of participants
-> Nurse uniforms and KKK robes

- 1/2 in each group had face seen ( individuated group)
- 1/2 in each group had faces hidden ( de-individuated group)

- Participants could increase/ decrease shocks given
--> Nurses: behaved in caring norms of group
--> KKK: Behavied in manners of group

Results
-> De-individuation increased behaviour as the group would have

7

Co-operation in groups

- Groups need to work together to achieve desired outcome
- Can arise when group conflict & group doesnt work together

8

Competition in Groups

- Reduce group cohesion
- Hinders effort to achieve group goals
- Increase group solidarity

- Leads to inter-group hostility

9

Brainstorming

- Groups can do most tasks better / faster

- Individuals bring unique skills, provide encouragement, support

10

Communication

- Thought that groups can generate more ideas / products faster

- Not always the case:
-> Ppl easily distracted
-> One person in charge
-> One person able to talk at 1 time

11

Closeness

- How much a person feels apart of group will impact how they behave

- Apart: go along w/ behaviours
- Distanced; Might not join in group behaviour

12

Social Loafing

- Putting less effort into activity when in a group then when functioning alone

- May feel less accountable in a group
- Feel effort not important

- Can be reduced by:
-> Task is interesting
-> Members motivated
-> Contribution = essential for success
-> Performance monitored
-> Individual identify strongly w/ group

13

Alan Ingham

- Social Loafing
-> Blind folded students to pull on a rope
-> Thought they were apart of a 3 person team
-> Only put in 82% effort
-> Individuals feel less accountable

14

Continuity of Relationships

- State of relationship over a period of time
- Free from disruption

-> Stable relo. = cohesive group behaviour
-> Friction = effect on group behaviour

15

Group Cohesiveness

- Groups need to be organised
- Tasks and roles assigned
- Known strengths and weaknesses
- Encourage co-operation

16

Relationship b/w co-operation and competition

- Co-operation
--> Boost productivity

Competition
--> Reduces group cohesion
--> Cause group solidarity

17

Realistic Conflict Theory

- Inter-group hostility arises b/w groups for scarce but values resources

18

Theory of Relative Deprivation

- Feelings of discontent arise from belief that others are better off
- Can influence group behaviour