3A- Neural Processing and the Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3A- Neural Processing and the Endocrine System Deck (38)
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Biological psychologists study this

Neural communication

1

A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

Neuron

2

Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

Sensory neurons

3

Neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

Motor neurons

4

Neurons with the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs

Interneurons

5

Dendrite, cell body, axon, myelin sheath

Parts of a neuron

6

The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

Dendrite

7

The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

Axon

8

A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

Myelin sheath

9

2-200mph

Speed of a neuron impulse

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The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

Threshold

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Intensity doesn't change the firing; it either fires or it doesn't

All or none response

12

The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

Synapse

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The tiny gap between the dendrite and the axon tip or between the cell body and the axon tip

Synaptic gap/synaptic cleft

14

Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons

Neurotransmitters

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A neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

Reuptake

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Enables muscle action, learning, and memory (with Alzheimer's these ____ producing neurons deteriorate

Acetylcholine (ACh)

17

Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion (excess leads to schizophrenia, too little leads to tremors similar to Parkinson's disease

Dopamine

18

Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal (under supply linked to depression)

Serotonin

19

Helps control alertness and arousal; also a hormone (under supply can depress mood)

Norepinephrine

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A major inhibitory neurotransmitter (under supply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia)

GABA

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Excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory (oversupply can overstimulate brain, producing seizures or migraines)

Glutamate

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"Morphine within"; natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

Endorphins

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Binds to the receptor and mimics the effects of the similar neurotransmitter

Agonist

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Binds to the receptor but it blocks a neurotransmitter's functioning

Antagonist

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The body's speedy, electrochemical communication network

Nervous system

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The brain and the spinal cord

Central nervous system

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The sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body

Peripheral nervous system

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Bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs

Nerves

29

Part of the peripheral nervous system; controls the body's skeletal muscles

Somatic

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Part of the peripheral nervous system; controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart)

Autonomic

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Part of the autonomic system; arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

Sympathetic

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Prt of the autonomic system; the division that calms the body, conserving its energy

Parasympathetic

33

A part of the central nervous system; a simple, automatic response to a story stimulus

Reflex

34

The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

Endocrine system

35

Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

Hormones

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A pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress

Adrenal glands

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The endocrine system's most influential gland; under the influence of the hypothalamus, regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands; the master gland

Pituitary glands