3B: Structure and integrative functions of the main organ systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3B: Structure and integrative functions of the main organ systems Deck (115):
1

Respiratory Pathway

Nares -> Nasal Cavity -> Pharynx -> Larynx -> Trachea -> Bronchi -> Bronchioles -> Alveoli

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Pharnyx

Warms and humidifies the air

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Vibrissae (Nasal Hairs)

Filters air

4

Alveoli

Small sacs that interface with the pulmonary capillaries, allowing gases to diffuse across a one-cell-thick membrane

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Alveoli

Small sacs that interface with the pulmonary capillaries, allowing gases to diffuse across a one-cell-thick membrane

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Surfactant

Reduces surface tension at the liquid-gas interface which prevents collapse

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Types of Pleurae

Visceral Pleura
Parietal Pleura

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Visceral Pleura

Lies adjacent to the lung itself

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Parietal Pleura

Lines the chest wall

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Intrapleural Space

Lies between these two layers and contains a thin layer of fluid, which lubricates the two pleural spaces

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Diaphragm

Thin skeletal muscle that helps create pressure differential required for breathing

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External Intercostal Muscles + Diaphragm

Expands the thoracic cavity, increasing the volume of the intrapleural space - decreasing intrapleural pressure

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External Intercostal Muscles + Diaphragm

Expands the thoracic cavity, increasing the volume of the intrapleural space; decreasing intrapleural pressure

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Negative-Pressure Breathing

Pressure differential ultimately expands the lungs, dropping their pressure and drawing in air from the environment

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Passive Exhalation

Relaxation of the muscles of inspiration and elastic recoil of the lungs allowing the chest cavity to decrease in volume, reversing the pressure differentials seen inhalation

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Active Exhalation

The internal intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles can be used to forcibly decrease the volume of the thoracic cavity, pushing out air

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Spirometer

Used to measure lung capacities and volumes

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Total Lung Capacity (TLC)

Maximum volume of air in the lungs when one inhales completely

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Total Lung Capacity (TLC)

Maximum volume of air in the lungs when one inhales completely

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Residual Volume (RV)

Minimum volume of air in the lungs when one exhales completely

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Vital Capacity (VC)

Difference between the minimum and maximum volume of air in the lungs

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Tidal Volume (TV)

Volume of air inhaled or exhaled in a normal breath

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Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)

Volume of additional air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal exhalation

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Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

Volume of additional air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal exhalation

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Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

Volume of additional air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal exhalation

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Ventilation Center

A collection of neurons in the medulla oblongata that regulate ventilation

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Hypercapnia/Hypercarbia

High concentrations of CO2 in blood detected by chemoreceptors

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Hypoxia

Low concentrations of O2 in the blood detected by chemoreceptors

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Control of Ventilation

Cerebrum, Medulla Oblongata (overrides cerebrum during periods of hypo or hyperventilation)

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Pulmonary Arteries

Brings deoxygenated blood with high CO2 concentration to the lungs

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Pulmonary Veins

Takes oxygenated blood with low CO2 concentration away from the longs

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Pulmonary Veins

Takes oxygenated blood with low CO2 concentration away from the longs

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Respiratory Effects in Thermoregulation

Assists with vasodilation and vasoconstriction of the capillary beds

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Respiratory protection from pathogens

Vibrissae
Mucous Membranes (covered with IgA)
Mucociliary Escalator

Help filter in the incoming air and trap particulate matter

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Lysozyme

In the nasal cavity and saliva attacks PTG cell walls of gram-positive bacteria

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Macrophages

Engulf and digest pathogens and signal to the rest of the immune system that there is an invader

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Mast Cells

Have antibodies on their surface that can promote the release of inflammatory chemicals; often involved in allergic reactions

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Decrease in Blood pH

Respiration rate increases to compensate by blowing off carbon dioxide; shifts left in the buffer equation to reduce hydrogen ion concentration

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Increase in Blood pH

Respiration rate decreases to compensate by trapping carbon dioxide; shifts right in the buffer equation to increase hydrogen ion concentration

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Increase in Blood pH

Respiration rate decreases to compensate by trapping carbon dioxide; shifts right in the buffer equation to increase hydrogen ion concentration

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Carbonic Anhydrase

Catalyzes interconversion of CO2 and H2O to Bicarbonate and protons

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Carbonic Anhydrase

Catalyzes interconversion of CO2 and H2O to Bicarbonate and protons

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Henry's Law

Says that when a gas is in contact with the surface of a liquid that amount of the gas will go into the solution is proportional to the partial pressure of that gas

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Function of Circulatory System

Circulate oxygen, nutrients, hormones, ions and fluids and remove metabolic waste

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Circulatory role in Thermoregulation

Conserves heat by constricting blood flow from the skin

Gets rid of heat by dilating so more blood flows to the skin

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Chambers of the heart

Right and Left Atria

Right and Left Ventricle

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Which side carries deoxygenated blood?

Right

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Which side carries oxygenated blood?

Left

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What are the two circulations?

Pulmonary (heart to lungs)
Systemic (heart to rest of the body)

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What are the two circulations?

Pulmonary (heart to lungs)
Systemic (heart to rest of the body)

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What separates the left atrium from the left ventricle?

Mitral/Bicuspid Valve

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What separates the right atrium from the right ventricles?

Tricuspid Valve

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What separates the right atrium from the right ventricles?

Tricuspid Valve

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What separates the left ventricle from the vasculature?

Aortic Valve

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What separates the right ventricle from the vasculature?

Pulmonary Valve

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Atrioventricular Valves

Tricuspid
Bicuspid/Mitral

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Semilunar Valves

Aortic
Pulmonary

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Pathway of Blood Through the Heart

RA -> RV -> Pulmonary Artery -> Lungs -> Pulmonary Veins > LA -> LV -> Aorta -> Arteries -> Arterioles -> Capillaries -> Venules -> Veins -> Venae Cavae -> Ra

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Pathway of Blood Through the Heart

RA -> RV -> Pulmonary Artery -> Lungs -> Pulmonary Veins > LA -> LV -> Aorta -> Arteries -> Arterioles -> Capillaries -> Venules -> Veins -> Venae Cavae -> RA

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Pathway of Blood Through the Heart

RA -> RV -> Pulmonary Artery -> Lungs -> Pulmonary Veins > LA -> LV -> Aorta -> Arteries -> Arterioles -> Capillaries -> Venules -> Veins -> Venae Cavae -> RA

61

Why is the left side of the heart more muscular than the right?

It is because the systemic circulation has a much higher resistance and pressure

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Why is the left side of the heart more muscular than the right?

It is because the systemic circulation has a much higher resistance and pressure

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Endothelial Cells

Line the interior surface of blood vessels and are in direct contact with blood; function to provide barriers, form new blood vessels and control blood pressure through vasoconstriction and vasodilation

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Endothelial Cells

Line the interior surface of blood vessels and are in direct contact with blood; function to provide barriers, form new blood vessels and control blood pressure through vasoconstriction and vasodilation

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Systolic Pressure

BP when blood is being pumped and the left ventricles are contracting (highest)

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Diastolic Pressure

BP when blood is not being pumped, ventricles are relaxing and blood is filling (lowest)

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Diastolic Pressure

BP when blood is not being pumped, ventricles are relaxing and blood is filling (lowest)

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Pulmonary Circuit

Heart -> Lungs -> Heart
Shorter than systemic circulations and thus has less resistance and less BP
Involves in vasoconstriction

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Systemic Circuit

Heart -> Body -> Heart
Much larger and has higher resistance and higher BP
Involves vasodilation

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Systemic Circuit

Heart -> Body -> Heart
Much larger and has higher resistance and higher BP
Involves vasodilation

71

Arteries

Thick, muscular with elastic qualities; allows for recoil and help to propel blood forward within the system

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Arterioles

Smaller muscular arteries that control blood blow into the capillary beds; active in vasoconstriction and allow body to control which tissues receive more blood

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Capillary Beds

Site of O2 and CO2 exchange
Site of Nutrient and Waste exchange

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Types of Capillaries

Continuous
Fenestrated
Sinusoidal

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Continuous Capillaries

No pores in endothelial cells, found in skin and muscles; sealing of clefts by tight junctions

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Fenestrated Capillaries

Small pores for molecules not big enough for blood cells to go through; found in small intestine, endocrine organs and kidney

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Sinusoidal Capillaries

Large pores for blood cells to go through; found in lymphoid tissue, liver, spleen and bone marrow

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Mechanisms of Heat Exchange

Radiation, Conduction, Evaporative Cooling

79

Veins

Inelastic, thin-walled structures that transport blood to the heart; able to stretch to accommodate large volumes of blood but do not have recoil ability; compressed by surrounding skeletal muscles

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Veins

Inelastic, thin-walled structures that transport blood to the heart; able to stretch to accommodate large volumes of blood but do not have recoil ability; compressed by surrounding skeletal muscles; have valves to maintain one-way flow

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Venules

Small veins

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Venules

Small veins

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Hepatic Portal System

Blood travels from the gut capillary beds to the liver capillary bed via hepatic portal vein

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Hepatic Portal System

Blood travels from the gut capillary beds to the liver capillary bed via hepatic portal vein

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Hypophyseal Portal System

Blood travels from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary

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Renal Portal System

Blood travels from the glomerulus to the vasa recta through an efferent arteriole

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Renal Portal System

Blood travels from the glomerulus to the vasa recta through an efferent arteriole

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Composition of Blood

Plasma, RBCs, WBCs, Platelets

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Plasma

Water, Ions, Plasma Proteins, Electrolytes, Gases, Nutrients, Wastes, Hormones

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RBCs

Lack mitochondria, nuclei and organelles in order to make room for hemoglobin

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WBCs

Formed in the bone marrow, consists of granular leukocytes and agranular leukocytes

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Granular Leukocytes

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

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Agranular Leukocytes

Lymphocytes
Monocytes

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Thrombocytes

Cell fragments of megakaryocytes required for coagulation

95

RBCs

Lack mitochondria, nuclei and organelles in order to make room for hemoglobin; formed in bone marrow

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Thrombocytes

Cell fragments of megakaryocytes required for coagulation

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Heme Breakdown

Heme -> Bilirubin -> Bile -> Feces

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Coagulation Path

Prothrombin -> Thrombin ->> Fibrinogen -> Fibrin

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Coagulation Breakdown

Plasminogen -> Plasmin

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Coagulation Path

Prothrombin -> Thrombin ->> Fibrinogen -> Fibrin

Liver produces clotting factors

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Coagulation Breakdown

Plasminogen -> Plasmin

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What mechanism does feedback follow?

Positive feedback -> clotting leads to more clotting

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Universal Donor

O, no A or B antigen

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Universal Receiver

AB, no antibody for A or B

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How is oxygen transported in the blood?

It is attached to the iron of the heme group in hemoglobin

106

How many subunits does hemoglobin contain?

4 subunits w/ 4 iron atoms thus 4 O2 units at a time

107

Hematocrit

% volume of blood that is red blood cells

108

Oxygen Affinity

More oxygen binding to one subunit relaxes the confomration of the other subunits and increases the ability of oxygen to bind

109

Oxygen Affinity

More oxygen binding to one subunit relaxes the conformation of the other subunits and increases the ability of oxygen to bind

110

Oxygen Affinity

More oxygen binding to one subunit relaxes the conformation of the other subunits and increases the ability of oxygen to bind

111

What decreases oxygen affinity?

High temperature, low pH, high CO2 levels

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What decreases oxygen affinity?

High temperature, low pH, high CO2 levels

113

How is CO2 transported in the blood?

Dissolved into RBCs forming carbaminohemoglobin where it is acted on by carbonic anhydrase

114

How is CO2 transported in the blood?

Dissolved into RBCs forming carbaminohemoglobin where it is acted on by carbonic anhydrase

115

How is plasma volume regulated?

Vasopressin/ADH, RAAS