3rd Midterm Study Guide: Cancer Therapeutics Flashcards Preview

Human Disease and Therapeutics > 3rd Midterm Study Guide: Cancer Therapeutics > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3rd Midterm Study Guide: Cancer Therapeutics Deck (32):
1

What cancer therapeutic cures 1/3 of cancers?

Local treatment
(Surgery, radiotherapy)

2

Chemotherapy is used for...

Advanced diseases
or
as an adjuvant

3

Where do anticancer medications usually exert action?

Cells in the cell cycle

4

Cancer therapy usually requires what?

A combination of drugs or drugs combined with radiation and or surgery.

*a single drug is rarely effective against cancer

5

Successful cancer therapy requires what?

Maximal cell killing within the range of toxicity required by the host.

6

Cancer therapy requires what to protect the host?

Adjustment of scheduling and overlapping toxicities.

7

What are the principles of use for Chemotherapy?

-Primary induction for advanced disease or cancers without other treatment alternatives
-Neoadjuvant
-Adjuvant

8

What is a Neoadjuvant in chemotherapy used for?

localized disease where surgery/radiation alone are inadequate

9

What is an adjuvant in chemotherapy used for?

in addition to local methods such as radiation/surgery to prevent metastasis

10

What is important to achieve with drug combination therapy?

They to find a dose that provides maximum cancer-cell death while within there range of toxicity of the host.

11

What to drug combination therapies try to optimize?

-Efficacy
-Reduced toxicity
-Optimum Scheduling
-Mechanism of Interaction (If possible, Synergism)
-Optimal Dosing

12

What leads to resistance to radiation and anti-cancer therapy in 50% of all human tumors?

p53 Mutation

13

What role does p53 play?

It senses sick or abnormal DNA, and it regulates apoptosis.

14

What cancers are the BRCA 1 and 2 genes related to?

Breast and ovary carcinoma

15

What is an example of an alkylating agent?

Cyclophosphamide

16

What is an alkylating agent like Cyclophosphamide used to treat?

Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Leukemia
Breast Cancer

17

What is the mechanism of action of Alkylating agents?

They transfer their alkyl groups to various cell constituents such as DNA (Causing miscoding)

18

What are the adverse effects of Alkylating agents?

-Nausea, vomiting
-Damage to rapidly growing tissues (GI/oral mucosa)
-Carcinogenic in nature

19

What is a possible explanation for resistance to Alkylating agents?

increased ability of cancer cells to repair damaged DNA

20

What are examples of Ntirosoureas?

Procarbazine and Decarbazine

*used for combo therapy of Hodgkin's lymphoma

21

What are characteristics of Nitrosoureas?

-they require biotransformation to be effective
-they are highly lipophilic so they are used to treat brain tumors.

22

What is an example of a Platinum Analog and what does it do?

Cisplatin - used on a broad range of solid tumors.

23

What are examples of an antimetabolites and what do they do in general?

Methyltrexate and Fluorouracil

*these drugs act on intermediary metabolism of proliferating cells.

24

Besides cancer therapy methyltrexate is used to treat what?

Rheumatoid Arthritis

*folic acid analog

25

What does the antimetabolite Fluorouracil do?

Inhibits thymidine synthesis.

26

What does the antimetabolite methyltrexate do?

-interferes with the formation of DNA, key proteins inhibit tetrahydrofolate.
-treats head, neck, and breast cancers
-causes mucositis and diarrhea.

27

What are examples of Natural Product Cancer, chemotherapy drugs?

-Vinblastine and Vincristine (Vinca Alkaloids)
-Etoposide

28

How do Natural Product Cancer, chemotherapy drugs such as Vinblastine and Vincristine work?

Inhibit tubulin* polymerization

*cytoskeleton component

toxicity=mucositis

29

How does the Natural Product Cancer, chemotherapy drug Etoposide work?

Inhibits topoisomerase II (interferes with DNA structuring)

*semisynthetic form of Mandrake

30

What is an example of anti tumor antibiotics?

Anthracyclines (Doxorubicin and bleomycin -treat breast cancer)

31

What does the cancer therapy drug Erlotineb do?

antagonize epidermal growth factors receptors

32

What are the three cancers noted in the study guide as being treated by cancer therapeutics?

Hodgkins Lymphoma
Breast cancer
Prostate