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Flashcards in 4 Deck (34):
1

what is ecology

the study of how organisms interact with each other

2

what is an abiotic and biotic factor

abiotic are non living factors (temp) and biotic are living caused by another organism

3

ecotones

transition areas in between two ecosystems

4

what is the difference between an artificial and natural ecosystem

artificial limited to change and natural has change

5

ecological niche

role in an ecosystem

6

biome

large geographical region with a specific climate

7

what are the 4 biomes

tundra, taiga, deciduous , grassland

8

describe taiga biome

forests, dominated by conifers, canary gets most sunlight, forest floor has shade, shrubs, moss

9

muskeg biome

warm ground temps where decomposition is faster resulting in good soil

10

grassland biome

most fertile ecosystem, limited diversity, grass provides biomass for decomposition warm temps produce rapid decay and humus

11

deciduous forest

edges of grassland and before taiga, lots of diversity

12

littoral zone

areas from the shore to the point where no more plants grow in the lake bottom

13

limnetic zone

area where there is open water and sufficient light for photosynthesis

14

profundal zone

beneath limnetic where there’s not enough sun

15

soil

series of layers that can be identified by its distinct colour and texture

16

what are the layers of soil in order

litter, topsoil, subsoil, bedrock

17

litter

upper layer made up of partially decomposed leaves and grasses, provides protection from temp and water loss

18

topsoil

small particles of rock and decaying plant/animal matter (humus), contains lost of nutrients for plant

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subsoil

contains more rocks and mixed with small amounts of organic matter, light colour cause lack of humus but has lots of iron and phosphorus

20

bedrock

rock beneath soil

21

biotic potential

minimum number of offspring that a species could reproduce if resources were limited

22

4 biotic potential factors

birth potential, capacity for survival, length of reproductive life, breeding frequency

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birth potential

maximum number of offspring per year

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capacity for survival

number of offspring that reach reproductive age

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length of reproductive life

age of sexual maturity/ years of reproduction

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breeding frequency

number of times that a species reproduces

27

limiting factors

factors in an environment that can prevent populations from biotic potential

28

carrying capacity

the maximum number of individuals of a species that can be supported at the time by an ecosystem

29

limits of tolerance

survival are reproduction depends on the presence of nutrients and the ability to withstand the abiotic factors

30

law of minimum

states that the nutrient in the least supply limits growth

31

law of tolerance

an organism can survive within a specific range of an abiotic factor

32

density independent factors

factors of an ecosystem that affects members of the population regardless of population density (fire, food)

33

density dependent factors

factors that affects members of a population because of population density (disease, food supply)

34

biological oxygen demand

measure of the amount of oxygen needed by decomposers to break down the organic matter in a water sample at 20 degrees over 5 days