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1

What is a species?

A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring

2

What is a habitat?

The environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism

3

Population

A group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time

4

What is a community?

A group of populations of the same area living and interacting with each other

5

What is an ecosystem?

A community and its abiotic environment

6

What is ecology?

The study of relationships between living organisms and their environment

7

What is an autotroph?

An organism that synthesises its organic molecules from simple inorganic molecules

8

What are heterotrophs?

An organism that obtains organic molecules from other organisms

9

What is a consumer?

An organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed

10

What is a detrivore?

An organism that ingests non-living organic matter, a decomposer

11

What is a Saprotroph?

An organism that lives in or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes and absorbing products of digestion

12

What is a good chain?

A representation of the relationships between organisms based on their diet

13

What does a food web show?

How food chains are linked together in to more complex feeding relationships

14

How is sunlight converted to chemical energy?

Sunlight is trapped by the protein chlorophyll through photosynthesis and converted to chemical energy

15

Why is there energy loss between trophic levels?

Material is not consumed, which is used by saprophytes it respiration, but ultimately lost as heat to the environment, or it is assimilated and lost

16

How much energy is assimilated at the next higher trophic levels?

10-20%

17

What effect do extreme environments have impacted food chains?

In the Arctic, initial trapping of energy by producers is lower so the energy transfer to large predators is rare and food chains are shorter. In the rainforest trapping of energy by producers is more efficient so the food chains are longer and more complex

18

What do pyramids of energy show?

- shows flow of energy from 2 trophic level to the next
- the decrease in shape as it goes upwards shows the gradual loss of energy
- shows biomass of organisms

19

How do producers recycle nutrients?

Producers take organic molecules and convert them into organic compounds, which consumers feed on

20

How are nutrients recycled?

-Producers take organic molecules and convert them into organic compounds
- consumers take in this organic matter by feeding and use it for growth
- decomposition begins when saprotrophic bacteria and fungi secrete extra cellular digestive enzymes into dead organisms, which are hydrolysed and reabsorbed by saprophytes

21

What pools are carbon found in?

- biosphere
- oceans
- atmosphere
- sediments

22

In which processes does carbon move between pools in?

- photosynthesis
- respiration
- feeding
- fossilisation
- combustion

23

How does carbon move in photosynthesis?

It moves by terrestrial and algae in which atmospheric and dissolved carbon is removed and fixed as carbon compounds, such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins

24

How does carbon move in feeding?

Carbon of organic molecules move from one link in the food chain to another

25

How is carbon moved in fossilisation?

Carbon as organic molecules, becomes trapped in sediment as coal, gas and oil

26

How is ATP produced?

By cell respiration

27

What type of reaction is cell respiration?

Exothermic

28

What happens as ATP is produced in cell respiration?

Carbon compounds are oxidised but are not immediately usable but ATP is as it is used in cell activities

29

What is the mean concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere?

0.039%

30

What happens to CO2 I’m solution?

- CO2 is soluble in water
- it either remains as dissolved has or combines with water to form carbonic acid
- this can dissociate to form hydrogen and hydrogen carbonate ions (H+ and HCO3-
- this reduces the pH of water