Flashcards in 4 Deck (44)
What is a species?
A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
What is a habitat?
The environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism
A group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time
What is a community?
A group of populations of the same area living and interacting with each other
What is an ecosystem?
A community and its abiotic environment
What is ecology?
The study of relationships between living organisms and their environment
What is an autotroph?
An organism that synthesises its organic molecules from simple inorganic molecules
What are heterotrophs?
An organism that obtains organic molecules from other organisms
What is a consumer?
An organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed
What is a detrivore?
An organism that ingests non-living organic matter, a decomposer
What is a Saprotroph?
An organism that lives in or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes and absorbing products of digestion
What is a good chain?
A representation of the relationships between organisms based on their diet
What does a food web show?
How food chains are linked together in to more complex feeding relationships
How is sunlight converted to chemical energy?
Sunlight is trapped by the protein chlorophyll through photosynthesis and converted to chemical energy
Why is there energy loss between trophic levels?
Material is not consumed, which is used by saprophytes it respiration, but ultimately lost as heat to the environment, or it is assimilated and lost
How much energy is assimilated at the next higher trophic levels?
What effect do extreme environments have impacted food chains?
In the Arctic, initial trapping of energy by producers is lower so the energy transfer to large predators is rare and food chains are shorter. In the rainforest trapping of energy by producers is more efficient so the food chains are longer and more complex
What do pyramids of energy show?
- shows flow of energy from 2 trophic level to the next
- the decrease in shape as it goes upwards shows the gradual loss of energy
- shows biomass of organisms
How do producers recycle nutrients?
Producers take organic molecules and convert them into organic compounds, which consumers feed on
How are nutrients recycled?
-Producers take organic molecules and convert them into organic compounds
- consumers take in this organic matter by feeding and use it for growth
- decomposition begins when saprotrophic bacteria and fungi secrete extra cellular digestive enzymes into dead organisms, which are hydrolysed and reabsorbed by saprophytes
What pools are carbon found in?
In which processes does carbon move between pools in?
How does carbon move in photosynthesis?
It moves by terrestrial and algae in which atmospheric and dissolved carbon is removed and fixed as carbon compounds, such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
How does carbon move in feeding?
Carbon of organic molecules move from one link in the food chain to another
How is carbon moved in fossilisation?
Carbon as organic molecules, becomes trapped in sediment as coal, gas and oil
How is ATP produced?
By cell respiration
What type of reaction is cell respiration?
What happens as ATP is produced in cell respiration?
Carbon compounds are oxidised but are not immediately usable but ATP is as it is used in cell activities
What is the mean concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere?