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Flashcards in 4 Deck (29):
1

In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

Verb missing!

Declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

2

Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

At least 6,000 years 동안 endure, up to now is important!
That have endured for at least 6,000years

3

By 1999, astronomers had discovered 17 nearby stars that are orbited by planets about the size of Jupiter

By 1999,= had discovered !
Had p.p!!!!!!
Right as is

4

Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised corn and soybean prices.

Prices are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago (x)
Than those of a year ago (0)

5

Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence,the neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,but their relatively sudden disappearnce during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led o their extinction.

Neanderthals =disappeared!
Therefore, appear as equipped (x)
APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN EQUIPPED(0)

EQUIPPED TO FACE (0)
EQUIPPED FOR FACING (X)

6

COULD PUT IN THEIR PATH
COULD PUT IN THEIR PATHS (X)

THEIR PATH!!

7

SIMPLE PAST

NO LONGER VALID

HE LIVED IN THIS HOUSE THEN YEARS AGO
LAST YEAR
LAST WEEK

8

FUTURE TENSE
NEXT YEAR

NOT YET HAPPENED
Ria will attend school in coming fall

9

The teachers will be taking classes throughout the summer

Is taking now will be taking

10

The doctors have found cure for many diseases
Vs

The doctors found cure for many diseases

No longer valid
Notice the difference!

11

Has cleaned
Cleaned yesterday

Effect continues
Dont know the status of the kitchen

12

I have visited sanfrancisco

I visited LA last year

Have visited =present perfect = specific time not stated

13

Since or within= always tense ?

Present perfect tense
Since the last time i met ioana, i have not seen her

Within the last one year, i have read 50 books

Within the last one year, alex has participated in 50 marathons

14

Always first

Understanding the meaning is essential

15

Tense ??
Is it completed
Still continuing
Or will happen

Always recognize the tense

16

Simple past tense ?f

Typically used for events that have a definite time period

Ex) last month
Last year
Yesterday

17

After he had moved to Paris in 1921

After + in 1921
있더라도 if there is past tence then is okay

18

When the past perfect is present ?

Always look for simple past to verify the sequence

I had slept when you called
I slept when you called

19

The paintings that were stolen from the museum this year were bought by the curator of the museum in a coveted auction in Paris

Notice the sequence which precedes which?

Bought + stolen

Were stolen from the museum this year had been bought by the curator

20

By the end of world war 2, america had dropped two atomic bombs on Japan

OX?

END =PAST
PRIOR TO THE END OF THE WAR BOMBS HAD DROPPED ON JAPAN (0)

21

AT THE END OF WORLD WAR II, America had dropped two atomic bombs on Japan

At the end = time
Dropped (0)
Had dropped (x)

22

After before =
Past perfect is

Optional!
Ex) happened after a had destroyed
Happened after a destroyed

Both correct

When before and after is present
And simple past or past perfect
=is present

DO NOT ELIMINATE ANSWERS

23

Recently scientists learned about the changes in earth that had happened during the last ice age

OX?

WRONG
WHY
PAST PERFECT TENSE = SEQUENCING OF 2 RELATED EVENTS

LEARNED + HAPPENED = NOT RELATED

THUS HAPPENED IS CORRECT

24

THE TEAM HAD PRACTICED WELL FOR THE PLAYOFFS

OX?

IS WRONG
WHEN SINGLE EVENT IS PRESENTED IN A SENTENCE

NO PAST PERFECT!!!!!

25

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE ?

2 RELATED EVENTS IN THE PAST IS NEEDED

26

In the party, youngsters danced and older people ate and drank

Always parallel verb tense

In the party youngsters were dancing when older people ate and drank

Sequencing is presented then correct

27

By 1973, the NOIC terminated the western oil consortium’s management and operational activities,

By 1973= act as past event 2, thus
Had terminated is correct!!!!!

28

Since it successfully negotiated payment sfrom insurers with a large presence in the local market, the Minneapolis-based Fairview Health System started offering digital visits last month

Had negotiated !!

1) understanding meaning of the sentence,

2) use appropriate tense
Accordingly

29

Will have sold by the end of the year

Will sell at the end of the year