Flashcards in 4 Deck (29):
In a review of 2000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940's, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.
Declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.
At least 6,000 years 동안 endure, up to now is important!
That have endured for at least 6,000years
By 1999, astronomers had discovered 17 nearby stars that are orbited by planets about the size of Jupiter
By 1999,= had discovered !
Right as is
Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised corn and soybean prices.
Prices are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago (x)
Than those of a year ago (0)
Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence,the neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,but their relatively sudden disappearnce during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led o their extinction.
Therefore, appear as equipped (x)
APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN EQUIPPED(0)
EQUIPPED TO FACE (0)
EQUIPPED FOR FACING (X)
COULD PUT IN THEIR PATH
COULD PUT IN THEIR PATHS (X)
NO LONGER VALID
HE LIVED IN THIS HOUSE THEN YEARS AGO
NOT YET HAPPENED
Ria will attend school in coming fall
The teachers will be taking classes throughout the summer
Is taking now will be taking
The doctors have found cure for many diseases
The doctors found cure for many diseases
No longer valid
Notice the difference!
Dont know the status of the kitchen
I have visited sanfrancisco
I visited LA last year
Have visited =present perfect = specific time not stated
Since or within= always tense ?
Present perfect tense
Since the last time i met ioana, i have not seen her
Within the last one year, i have read 50 books
Within the last one year, alex has participated in 50 marathons
Understanding the meaning is essential
Is it completed
Or will happen
Always recognize the tense
Simple past tense ?f
Typically used for events that have a definite time period
Ex) last month
After he had moved to Paris in 1921
After + in 1921
있더라도 if there is past tence then is okay
When the past perfect is present ?
Always look for simple past to verify the sequence
I had slept when you called
I slept when you called
The paintings that were stolen from the museum this year were bought by the curator of the museum in a coveted auction in Paris
Notice the sequence which precedes which?
Bought + stolen
Were stolen from the museum this year had been bought by the curator
By the end of world war 2, america had dropped two atomic bombs on Japan
PRIOR TO THE END OF THE WAR BOMBS HAD DROPPED ON JAPAN (0)
AT THE END OF WORLD WAR II, America had dropped two atomic bombs on Japan
At the end = time
Had dropped (x)
After before =
Past perfect is
Ex) happened after a had destroyed
Happened after a destroyed
When before and after is present
And simple past or past perfect
DO NOT ELIMINATE ANSWERS
Recently scientists learned about the changes in earth that had happened during the last ice age
PAST PERFECT TENSE = SEQUENCING OF 2 RELATED EVENTS
LEARNED + HAPPENED = NOT RELATED
THUS HAPPENED IS CORRECT
THE TEAM HAD PRACTICED WELL FOR THE PLAYOFFS
WHEN SINGLE EVENT IS PRESENTED IN A SENTENCE
NO PAST PERFECT!!!!!
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE ?
2 RELATED EVENTS IN THE PAST IS NEEDED
In the party, youngsters danced and older people ate and drank
Always parallel verb tense
In the party youngsters were dancing when older people ate and drank
Sequencing is presented then correct
By 1973, the NOIC terminated the western oil consortium’s management and operational activities,
By 1973= act as past event 2, thus
Had terminated is correct!!!!!
Since it successfully negotiated payment sfrom insurers with a large presence in the local market, the Minneapolis-based Fairview Health System started offering digital visits last month
Had negotiated !!
1) understanding meaning of the sentence,
2) use appropriate tense