Flashcards in 4. Acute inflammation Deck (54)
What are the causes of acute inflammation?
- tissue death (ischaemia, trauma, toxins, chemical insults, thermal injury, radiation)
- infection (especially bacterial, pyogenic)
The formation of pus
What is pus?
An accumulation of acute inflammatory cells, dead cells, bacteria etc.
What comes after acute inflammation?
- healing by regeneration
- healing by repair
- chronic inflammation
When does healing by regeneration occur?
After acute inflammation, when the cells can regrow
When does healing by repair occur?
After acute inflammation, when the cells canon regrow
When does chronic inflammation occur following acute inflammation?
After acute inflammation, when the damaging agent persists
What are the purposes of acute inflammation?
- clear away dead tissues
- locally protect from infection
- allow access of immune system components
What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?
- calor (=heat)
- rubor (=redness)
- dolor (=pain)
- tumor (=swelling)
In addition to the main 4 cardinal signs of inflammation, what is the extra one?
Disturbance of function
Why does rubor (redness) and calor (heat) occur in inflammation?
Due to vascular dilation
Why does swelling occur in inflammation?
Due to inflammatory exudate into surrounding tissues
Acute inflammation will look different in different organs. Name 4 different types of acute inflammation.
What occurs in serous inflammation?
Fluid accumulates in cavity
What occurs in fibrinous inflammation?
Precipitation of fibrin
What occurs in purulent inflammation?
Formation of pus
This is very common
What are 3 components of the acute inflammatory reaction?
1. vascular reaction
2. exudative reaction
3. cellular reaction
What is the vascular reaction? (a stage of acute inflammatory response)
Dilatation of blood vessels (=rubor), changes in flow
What is the exudative reaction? (a stage of acute inflammatory response)
Vessels become leaky, formation of inflammatory exudate (=tumor)
What is the cellular reaction? (a stage of acute inflammatory response)
Migration of inflammatory cells out of vessels
High temperature due to inflammation
How can the severity of acute inflammatory response in a patient be quantified?
- acute phase reaction
Give an example of a protein that is measured in acute phase reaction?
ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
What is the acute phase reaction?
Systemic and metabolic changes that occur within hours of an inflammatory stimulus. - acute phase proteins.
Describe the vascular reaction?
Microvascular dilation causes an increase in flow and then flow eventually deceases as the vessels become leaky
What causes increased permeability of vessels?
direct damage to endothelium eg. toxins, physical agents
How can we interfere with increased vascular permeability?
Drugs can affect the mediators which cause mediated increased permeability
What happens in a capillary if there is a greater hydrostatic pressure?
Fluid is pushed out of the capillaries