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Flashcards in 4. Acute inflammation Deck (54)
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1

What are the causes of acute inflammation?

- tissue death (ischaemia, trauma, toxins, chemical insults, thermal injury, radiation)

- infection (especially bacterial, pyogenic)

2

Define pyogenic

Pus forming

3

Define suppuration

The formation of pus

4

What is pus?

An accumulation of acute inflammatory cells, dead cells, bacteria etc.

5

What comes after acute inflammation?

Either

- healing by regeneration
- healing by repair
or
- chronic inflammation

6

When does healing by regeneration occur?

After acute inflammation, when the cells can regrow

7

When does healing by repair occur?

After acute inflammation, when the cells canon regrow

8

When does chronic inflammation occur following acute inflammation?

After acute inflammation, when the damaging agent persists

9

What are the purposes of acute inflammation?

- clear away dead tissues
- locally protect from infection
- allow access of immune system components

10

What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?

- calor (=heat)
- rubor (=redness)
- dolor (=pain)
- tumor (=swelling)

11

In addition to the main 4 cardinal signs of inflammation, what is the extra one?

Disturbance of function

12

Why does rubor (redness) and calor (heat) occur in inflammation?

Due to vascular dilation

13

Why does swelling occur in inflammation?

Due to inflammatory exudate into surrounding tissues

14

Acute inflammation will look different in different organs. Name 4 different types of acute inflammation.

- serous
- fibrinous
- purulent
- pseudomembranous

15

What occurs in serous inflammation?

Fluid accumulates in cavity

16

What occurs in fibrinous inflammation?

Precipitation of fibrin

17

What occurs in purulent inflammation?

Formation of pus

This is very common

18

What are 3 components of the acute inflammatory reaction?

1. vascular reaction
2. exudative reaction
3. cellular reaction

19

What is the vascular reaction? (a stage of acute inflammatory response)

Dilatation of blood vessels (=rubor), changes in flow

20

What is the exudative reaction? (a stage of acute inflammatory response)

Vessels become leaky, formation of inflammatory exudate (=tumor)

21

What is the cellular reaction? (a stage of acute inflammatory response)

Migration of inflammatory cells out of vessels

22

Define pyrexia

High temperature due to inflammation

23

How can the severity of acute inflammatory response in a patient be quantified?

- pyrexia
- acute phase reaction

24

Give an example of a protein that is measured in acute phase reaction?

C-reactive protein

ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)

25

What is the acute phase reaction?

Systemic and metabolic changes that occur within hours of an inflammatory stimulus. - acute phase proteins.

26

Describe the vascular reaction?

Microvascular dilation causes an increase in flow and then flow eventually deceases as the vessels become leaky

27

What causes increased permeability of vessels?

Mediated =

histamine
bradykinin
NO
leukotriene B4
complement components

Non-mediated =

direct damage to endothelium eg. toxins, physical agents

28

How can we interfere with increased vascular permeability?

Drugs can affect the mediators which cause mediated increased permeability

29

What happens in a capillary if there is a greater hydrostatic pressure?

Fluid is pushed out of the capillaries

30

What happens in a capillary if there is a greater oncotic pressure?

Fluid will enter the capillaries