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Flashcards in 4 Autonomics Deck (75):
1

T-F---ANS has an efferent component, but no afferent component?

False--both

2

In the efferent ANS, how many neurons connect the CNS to the target?

2

3

What 3 things divide paraSNA and SNA?

neurotransmitter, anatomical location, peripheral target

4

True or false--sympathetics are found in the brainstem?

No- parasympathetics

5

That cranial nerves are associated with the parasympathetics?

III, VII, IX, X

6

Besides the brainstem, where are there parasympathetic pre-ganglionic nuclei?

S2-4

7

Where are most pre-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons in the medulla located?

dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMX)

8

ParSNA of CNX is secretomotor to mucous glands and motor to smooth muscle of the GI tract except to what?

Inhibitory to the pyloric sphincter

9

Preganglionic neurons sending axons to postganglionic neurons in the subpericardial tissue are located where?

nucleus ambiguus

10

T-F-- there is a small amount of DMX sent to the smooth muscle of bronchi and bronchioles?

True

11

Pre ganglionic neurons in the inferior salivatory nuclei go to what ganglion?

otic ganglion

12

Pre ganglionic neurons in the superior salivatory nuclei go to what ganglion?

pterygopalatine ganglia

13

Where are the inferior and superior salivatory nucleus located?

pons

14

where are pre-ganglionic neurons located in the midbrain?

edinger-westphal

15

What do neurons in the edinger-westphal nucleus innervate?

ciliary ganglia----> cliaris (accommodation) and sphincter pupillae

16

What do parasympathetic arising from the sacral regions innervate?

-mostly bladder
-GI from distal 1/3 transverse colon to upper anal canal
-erectile tissue in penis/clitoris

17

Where are the post-ganglionic neurons located in the sympathetics?

paravertebral sympathetic chain ganglion [axons are present in every peripheral and cranial nerve]

18

T-F--the sympathetic system can control individual actions in individual organs

True [individual pre-ganglionic neurons generally innervate groups of post ganglionic with the same function]

19

how does separation of actions by the sympathetics occur?

individual pre-ganglionic neurons innervate groups of post-ganglionics with the same function

20

What are post-ganglionic sympathetics excitatory motor to?

Smooth muscle of
-blood vessels
-hair follicles
-iris
-uterus-
-urethra
-vasdeferens
-

21

What receptor type mediates smooth muscle from the sympathetics?

alpha1 adrenergic receptors

22

What does sympathetics to the smooth muscle in the bronchioles and GI tract cause?

cells to relax

23

T-F--post-ganglionic sypmathetics innervate sweat glands?

True

24

What does pre-ganglionic input to adrenal medulla cause?

chromatin cells to release norepinephrine and epinephrine into the blood

25

Pre and post ganglionic neurons in the paraSNA use what neurotransmitter?

acetylcholine

26

Post ganglionics of sympathetics use what neurotransmitter?

norepinephrine (except for acetylcholine)

27

preganglionic sypathetics use what neurotransmitter?

acetylcholine

28

What are the two groups of visceral afferents?

cranial nerve afferents
spinal afferents

29

Cranial nerve afferents have their cell bodies where?

nodose ganglion and inferior glossopharyngeal ganglia

30

Where do cranial nerve afferents terminate?

nucleus of the solitary tract

31

Where do spinal afferents have their cell bodies?

DRG

32

Second order neurons of the spinal afferents terminate where?

ventroposterolateral thalamic nucleus (but also give branches to the NTS)

33

What type of signals to spinal afferents transmit?

mechano and chemoreceptors in the pelvic viscera and pain/temp of all viscera

34

What are the 3 main levels of control over the autonomic nervous system?

locally, brainstem, hypothalamus

35

What is the head ganglion of the autonomic nervous system?

hypothalamus

36

what is the pattern generator function of the ventrolateral medulla?

blood pressure and HR

37

What is the pattern generator function of the dorsomedial medulla?

vomiting

38

What is the central medullary reticular formation pattern generator function?

swallowing

39

What is the pattern generator function of the nucleus raphe pallidus?

thermoregulation

40

What is the pattern generator function of pontine micturition center?

control bladder function

41

what is the periaqueductal gray in the midbrain pattern generator function?

autonomic functions of complex behaviors like defense

42

What pattern generator function does the pretectal region have?

pupillary light reflex

43

baroreceptor reflex involves what neural pathways/structures?

afferent loop (IX and X)
NTS
ventrolateral medulla
vagal/sympathetic outflow

44

Where do afferents from baroreceptors and chemoreceptors terminate?

caudal NTS

45

Does external nucleus ambiguous send axons via CNX or does the ventrolateral medulla?

ambiguus
(ventrolateral medulla gives of pre-ganglionic sympathetics)

46

pre-ganglionic sypmathetics innervate what structures to control blood pressure (cardiomotor)?

renal artery, peripheral vascular beds , the heart

47

Are baroreceptor afferents excitatory or inhibitory to the NTS? NTS to caudal ventrolateral medulla?

excitatory, and excitatory

48

baroreceptor afferents Excitatory input to the nucleus ambiguous leads to what?

slowing of heart rate and contraction strength

49

Are CVLM neurons inhibitory or excitatory? where do the send their axons to?

inhibitory
RVLM

50

Increases in blood pressure do what to the RVLM?

inhibits it leading to reduction of heart rate, sympathetic tone in the vasculature and drop in peripheral resistance

51

T-F---increased sensitivity in the carotid sinus occurs with age?

True (slight increases can lead to dramatic blood pressure drops)

52

What are the 4 integrative centers in the pons and medulla for respiratory control?

dorsal respiratory group
ventral respiratory group
pneumotaxic center
apneustic center

53

Ventrolateral NTS and adjacent reticular formation forms?

dorsal respiratory group

54

Dorsal respiratory group sends inhibitory or excitatory axons? to where?

excitatory
phrenic nucleus

55

reticular formation ventrolateral to nucleus ambiguus contains the what? what does it control?

ventral respiratory group
forced expiration(very sensitive to CO2)

56

is the pneumotaxic center located in the lower pons?

No- upper pons near the superior cerebellar peduncle

57

What does the pneumotaxic center control?

end inspiration by inhibiting the dorsal respiratory group (helps set rate)

58

What does apneustic center drive?

inspiration

59

What is the apneustic center inhibited by?

pneumotaxic center and by lung stretch receptors

60

T-F---barbiturates excite pneumotaxic center and therefore lead to end inspiration?

they inhibit pneumotaxic center and reduce respiratory rythmyms-----they also block the stimulating effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia

61

What syndrome- rare congenital disorder believed to play a role in SIDS, abnormal development of neurons in respiratory groups, respiration stops during sleep?

Ondine's curse

62

What is deep rapid breathing followed by phases of apnea? what is it cause by?

central sleep apnea
loss of inspiratory drive and altered response to hypoxia

63

Parasympathetics of the pelvic splanchnics innervated what bladder muscle? activation causes?

detrusor muscle--activation causes bladder contraction and sphincter relaxation

64

somatomotor fibers from Onuf's nucleus (S2) innervates what?

the external urethral sphincter for voluntary control over voiding

65

afferents from stretch receptors in the bladder end where?

T11-L1 but send branches to cell bodies of pelvic splanchnics

66

What does sympathetics do to the bladder?

relax detrussor
contract internal sphincter

67

What are the 2 centers for bladder control in the upper pons?

pontine micturition center
pontine storage center

68

Pontine lesions affecting pontine micturation center cause?

urinary retention

69

What nucleus center controls thermoregulation? where is it located?

-nucleus raphe pallidus
-ventral midline of medulla

70

Post ganglionic neurons from the RPa use what neurotransmitter for excitatory? inhibitory?

glutamate
serotonin

71

RPa receives excitatory input from what?

cold sensitive posterior hypothalumus

72

What is RPa inhibited by?

heat sensitive anterior hypothalamus

73

T-F--- excitated RPa leads to vasodilation of peripheral vasculature and constriction of central arterial beds?

False- the opposite is true--->heat retention

74

Does adrenal gland activity increase or decreased with increased body temperature?

decreases

75

What types of special receptors do RPa neurons have involved in fever production?

prostaglandin EP3 receptors