4: Axilla and Brachial Plexus Flashcards Preview

Gross Anatomy Unit 1 > 4: Axilla and Brachial Plexus > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4: Axilla and Brachial Plexus Deck (52):
1

surface borders of axilla

serratus anterior
L. dorsi
pec major

2

anterior wall of axilla

pec major and minor;
clavicle and subclavius muscle

3

posterior wall of axilla

scapula and subscapularis muscle; also l. dorsi and teres major

4

medial wall of axilla

serratus anterior and thoracic wall

5

lateral wall of axilla

intertubercular groove of humerus

6

base axilla

skin and fascia of armpit

7

apex axilla

at base of CORACOID PROCESS.

formed by convergence of bone from anterior, posterior, medial walls. this interval is where all the nerves and vessels go through (brachial plexus, axillary a, axillary lymph nodes)

8

axillary sheath

lateral extension of prevertebral fascia ensheathes the axillary artery and vein and cords of brachial plexus

9

axillary artery

blood supply to anterior structures of thoracic wall

anastomosis of axillary a. and blood supply to scapula

10

before axillary and after and boundaries

subclavian til clavicle/lateral border of first rib; then axillary til teres major

1st segment til medial pec minor
2nd under pec minor
3rd from pec minor lateral to medial teres major

11

always name arteries by _____

where they GO

12

1st segment axillary nerve

branch is superior thoracic, which goes to intercostal spaces and top of serratus anterior

13

where does serratus anterior insert

medial border of scapula

14

2nd segment axillary artery

thoracocromial trunk: pectoral, clavicular, acromial, deltoid

LATERAL thoracic (serratus anterior)

15

3rd segment axillary artery

superior and inferior humeral circumflex

subscapular-->subscapular circumflex and thoracodorsal (to l. dorsi)

16

deep artery of arm

profunda brachii from the brachial artery

17

lateral thoracic artery

from 2nd part axillary artery; goes to serratus anterior

18

thoracoacromial trunk

2nd part axillary artery, branches to pectoral, clavicular, deltoid, acromial

19

supreme thoracic artery

from first segment; intercostal

20

subscapular artery

from 3rd segment axillary artery; branches into thoracodorsal (goes to l. dorsi) and subscapular circumflex (to scapula)

21

anastomosis of axillary artery and scapular network

(1) dorsal scapular or transverse cervical comes from subclavian

(2) suprascapular artery from subclavian

(3) subscapular circumflex from 3rd part axillary

^^interconnect on posterior scapula

22

anterior humeral circumflex

goes from 3rd segment axillary artery to head of humerus

23

posterior humeral circumflex

goes posterior from 3rd part axillary artery...supplies DELTOID...and then goes to head of humerus

24

lesions DISTAL to dorsal scapular and suprascapular arteries can be accomodated by scapular circulation how??

reversed flow through subscapular circumflex, which ultimately reaches brachial artery to sustain upper extremity

25

lymph nodes in axilla

pectoral group along anterior wall drain breast into central and apical groups near axillary artery and vein

26

what nerve passes posterior to humerus with the posterior humeral circumflex

axillary

27

bicep long head origin

supraglenoid tubercle

28

bicep short head origin

coracoid process

29

bicep innervation

musculotaneous nerve

30

coracobrachialis origin

coracoid process

31

deep muscles of anterior arm

corocobrachialis and brachialis

32

innervation of anterior arm muscles

bicep, coracobrachialis and brachialis --- MUSCULOTANEOUS nerve

33

anterior arm muscles, which flex arm

biceps and coracobrachialis

34

anterior arm muscles, which adduction arm (back to midline)

biceps and coracobrachilias

35

anterior arm muscles, which internally rotate arm

corachobrachialis

36

source of brachial plexus

ventral rami; not segmental

37

all posterior nerves of brachial plexus

from posterior cord: superior subscapular n., thoracodorsal n., inferior subscapular n., radial and axillary

38

all anterior branches of brachial plexus

from lateral cord: lateral pectoral n. and musculotaneous n. (medial root of median nerve)

from medial cord: medial pec n., medial brachial cutaneous n., medial ante brachial cutaneous n., ulnar (lateral root of median nerve)

from both--median

39

all bracial plexus nerves before divisions

from C5 root: DORSAL SCAPULAR

from C5-C6 superior trunk, supraspinatus and subclavian nerve

long thoracic hits C5,6,7

40

which nerve branches usually connect in brachial plexus

lateral and medial pectoral (from lateral adn medial cords)

41

anterior terminal nerves of upper extremity

musculotaneous, median, ulnar

42

posterior terminal nerves of upper extremity

radial and axillary

43

spinal roots join where

intervertebral foramen, form spinal nerve from dorsal (Sensory) and ventral (motor) root

44

how long is spinal nerve

only few mm; almost immediately divides into dorsal and ventral ramus (dorsal to deep back muscles and to skin of back and ventral to anything that was ventral in embryo)

45

where do nerves not exit vertebral canal near point of origin

below filum terminale/conus medullaris

46

unmyelinated nerves

small, so dont need myelin to go fast. also not as important

47

connective tissue sheath of nerves

1. epineurium = outer layer, dense fibrous connective tissue for peripheral nerves

2. perineurium = around fasicles (groups) of nerve fibers, sleeve of flattened epithelium like cells

3. endoneurium = thin layer of reticular fibers between schwann cell ensheathed axons; surround single nerve axon; outside myelin sheath

48

lateral cord from which roots

C5 C6 C7

49

posterior cord from which roots

all

50

medial cord from which roots

just C8 and T1

51

dermatome

area of skin supplied by single spinal nerve, except C1 has no dermatome

symptoms in dermatome may reflect issue with that nerve root

52

dermatome derived from what

somite