(4) Chapter 13 - The Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (4) Chapter 13 - The Cardiovascular System Deck (28):
1

how much blood is pumped per minute?

5 L

2

base of heart

the atria at the top of the heart

3

pericardial cavity

the space between the fibrous pericardium and serous pericardium of the heart, contains pericardial (serous) fluid

4

3 layers of the heart wall

epicardium (outer), myocardium (bulk of the muscle), and endocardium (inner)

5

intercalated discs

connect two ends of cardiac muscle fiber together

6

desmosomes

type of cellular junction, resembling snap buttons, and holding fibers together

7

auricles

wrinkled pouch-like structures on the external anterior surface of each atrium

8

pulmonary pump

right atrium/ventricle that pumps deoxygenated blood through the lungs

9

systemic pump

left atrium/ventricle that pumps oxygenated blood to the body systems

10

3 surface markings of the heart

coronary sulcus (holds coronary blood vessels), anterior interventricular sulcus (superficial to septum), and posterior interventricular sulcus

11

3 veins that empty into right atrium

superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus

12

pectinate muscles

internal muscular ridges on the anterior wall of the right atrium

13

fossa ovalis

a remnant of the foramen ovale between the atria that used to bypass the nonfunctional lungs during fetal development

14

tricuspid valve

(AKA right antrioventricular valve) prevents backflow from the right ventricle into the right atrium

15

trabeculae carneae

(AKA papillary muscles) raised bundles of cardiac muscle fibers found in both ventricles

16

chordae tendineae

tendon-like cords which attach the cusps of the atrioventricular valves to the trabeculae carneae of the ventricles

17

interventricular septum

thick wall dividing the left and right ventricles

18

3 components of the pulmonary system

pulmonary valve (b/w r atrium and trunk; AKA pulmonary semilunar), pulmonary trunk (R & L arteries carry blood to lungs), pulmonary veins (2 sets carry blood back to the L atrium)

19

bicuspid valve

(AKA mitral AKA left atrioventricular) controls flow b/w left atrium and ventricle

20

aorta

an artery that recieves blood from the L ventricle. ascends, arches, and descends. begins with the aortic valve

21

ductus arteriosus

fetal blood vessels that shunt blood from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta to bypass the nonfunctional lungs, these close after birth and become the ligamentum arteriosum which holds the aortic arch and pulmonary trunk together

22

broad overview of systemic circulation

L ventricle - aorta - other arteries - arterioles - capillaries - systemic venule

23

capillaries

sites of gas/nutrient exchange b/w systemic circulation and tissue

24

systemic venules

carry deoxygenated blood from tissue to the R atrium

25

coronary circulation

R & L coronary arteries carry oxygenated blood to mycardium; L = anterior interventricular (ventricles), circumflex (L atria/ventricle); R = posterior interventricular (both ventricles), marginal branch (R ventricle). deoxygenated blood collects in coronary sinus and drains into R atrium

26

autorhythmic cells

cells which conduct action potentials and enable heart to continue beating when removed from the body during transplant surgery

27

pacemaker

artificially sets rhythm for heart contraction when autorhythmic cells of the SA node (natural pacemaker) are not functioning properly

28

heart sounds (4)

S1 - louder 'lubb' of AV valves closing
S2 - 'dupp' of semilunar valves closing
S3 - b/c foramen ovale isn't fully closed; more common in kids/teens and a sign of early heart failure in adults > 30
S4 - due to weakened L ventricles