4 - Gout Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4 - Gout Deck (18):
1

What is gout?

A form of arthritis which is caused by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in joints

2

What can chronic gout cause?

  • joint destruction
  • decreased kidney function

3

What is uric acid from?

It's a breakdown product of purines

4

What is asymptomatic hyperuricemia?

A state of elevated levels of uric acid in the blood without symptoms 

**Precursor to developing gout

5

What are the 2 types of gout?

  1. excessive production of uric acid
  2. reduced excretion of uric acid

6

What are some purine-rich foods?

  • Shellfish
  • Organ meats - liver, brains, kidneys
  • Sweetbreads

7

What's a tophi?

Uric acid crystal deposit - usually in other tissues (helix of ear)

8

What are the 4 distinct stages of gout?

  1. Asymptomatic
  2. Acute
  3. Intercritical - no pain or swelling, relatively symptom free
  4. Chronic - tophi, polyarticular attacks

9

What drug treats gout by inhibition of neutrophil migration and phagocytic activity in inflamed joints?

colchicine (Colcrys) 

10

What is the only indication for colchicine?

Acute attack of gout

11

What is a side effect of colchicine?

GI toxicity 

12

What gout medication inhibits xanthine oxidase, that inhibits the synthesis of uric acid?

allopurinol (Zyloprim)

13

What are the indications of allopurinol (Zyloprim)?

  • Chronic gout
  • Chemotherapy and radiation

14

What are the side effects of allopurinol (Zyloprim)?

  • hepatotoxic
  • pruritic rash
  • allergic skin and blood reactions

15

What gout medication increases the excretion of uric acid = "uricosuric agent"?

probenecid (Benemid)

16

What are the indications for probenecid (Benemid)?

  • Chronic gout
  • When acute gout attacks increase in frequency and severity

17

What are 2 common problems with drug-to-drug interactions with probenecid (Benemid)?

  • Low dose aspirin - interferes with the uricosuric action of probenecid
  • Increases plasma level of penicillin

18

Why are NSAIDS used to help manage acute arthritis pain and inflammation of gout?

  • Relieve pain, tenderness and swelling of affected joints - no mechanism against gout itself