4: neurology and rabies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4: neurology and rabies Deck (71):
1

what are the 2 main parts of the nercous system

central and peripheral

2

what are the 4 parts of the brain

cerebrum, brainstem, vestibular system, cerebellum

3

what function does the cerebrum have (5)

behavior, vision, emotion, learning, logic

4

what function does the brainstem have (2)

mental status, body function

5

what function does the vestibular system have (2)

balance and proprioception

6

what function does the cerebellum have (2)

coordination and balance

7

why do we do a neuro exam

localize lesion, diagnosis, prognosis

8

what cranial nerves does PLR test

2 & 3

9

what cranial nerves does menace test

2 & 7

10

what cranial nerves does corneal reflex test

5 & 7

11

what cranial nerves does gag reflex test

9 & 10

12

what cranial nerves does oculo-vestibular

3, 4, 6, & 8

13

what do reflexes test

peripheral nerves or spinal cord only

14

what does proprioception test (4)

knuckling, hopping, wheelbarrowing, walking coordination

15

what is the most common cause of seizures in dogs

ideopathic epilepsy

16

name 2 long term seizure medications

potassium bromide and phenobarbitol

17

name an emergency seizure medication

diazepam

18

how are drug levels monitored

bloodwork, liver enzymes, diagnostic lab

19

how long can a drug take to reach adequate levels in the bloodstream

7-10 days

20

what are 2 emergency seizure types

status epilepticus and cluster seizures

21

what is status epilepticus

actively seizing

22

what are cluster seizures

multiple seizures in a short time frame

23

name 2 causes of encephalitis

rabies and distemper

24

name 2 congenital diseases

cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephaly

25

what is cerebellar hypoplasia linked to

panleukopenia in cats

26

what does nystagmus, head tilt, circling, ataxia, nausea, and V+ indicate

vestibular disease

27

what is the general prognosis for vestibular disease

good

28

what is the most common brain tumor in dogs and cats

maningioma

29

what medications can be used to treat cognitive dysfunction

vitamins and anipryl(selegiine)

30

what are the 2 types of IVDD

type I and type II

31

what is type I IVDD

acute injury

32

what is type II IVDD

chronic degeneration

33

how is IVDD diagnosed

radiographs, myelogram, and MRI

34

how is IVDD treated

medically or surgical

35

how is most likely to get wobbler syndrome

large breeds- Doberman and Great Dane; horses

36

how is wobbler dyndrome diagnosed

radiographs, myelogram, and MRI

37

how is wobbler dyndrome treated

medically or surgical

38

how do you diagnose discospondylitis

exam, bloodwoork, radiograph, culture, biopsy, MRI

39

how do you treat discospondylitis

long term ABX and pain meds

40

what is the most common cause of rabies in domestic animals on the east coast

raccoons

41

what is the most common cause of human exposure to rabies

bats

42

how is rabies diagnosed

post mortem brain tissue tests

43

with a spinal cord injury from C1-T2 what is affected

front and rear legs

44

with a spinal cord injury from T3-L3 what is affected

rear legs

45

with a spinal cord injury from L4-S3 what is affected

rear legs and perineum

46

with a spinal cord injury from S1-S3 what is affected

sciatic nerve and perineum

47

what is a common neurologic disease in older dogs

brain tumor

48

what is the most common type of epilepsy

idiopathic/primary

49

are seizures generally an emergency

no

50

when are seizures considered an emergency

continued for more than 5-10 min. or repeated clusters

51

what can missed doses of phenobarbitol lead to

seizures

52

what drug should not be used in seizure patients

acepromazine

53

what type of disease is distemper

viral

54

what is the medical treatment of hydrocephalus

feurosimide or manitol

55

what do embolus symptoms depend on

location

56

with IVDD what function will be lost first

motor before secondary

57

where is peripheral nerve disease commonly found

brachial plexus and caudal cervical nerve roots

58

what are the 2 types of deafness

conductive and neural

59

what virus causes rabies

rhabdovirus

60

what is rabies incubation period

3-8 weeks; up to 6 months

61

what state is rabies free

hawaii

62

how soon does death occur with rabies

within 10 days

63

what is the diagnosis for rabies

direct flourescent antibody test on fresh brain tissue

64

how soon do symptoms usually occur in humans

30-50 days

65

how soon does death occur in humans

within 3-20 days of symptoms

66

what should be done with a biter who is up to date on rabies vaccine

10 day quarantine

67

what should be done with a biter whos rabies vaccine is outdated

euthanized or (discuraged) 10 day quarantine

68

up to date animal is bitten by a rabid animal

law requires a 90 day quarantine

69

out of date animal is bitten by a rabid animal

euthanized or 180 day quarantine

70

human bite with non vaccinated animal

euthanazia

71

human bite with vaccinated animal

10 day quarantine without vaccine