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Flashcards in 4 Pedia Deck (133):
1

Strongest indicator of infant mortality

maternal education

2

Leading cause of newborn deaths

Neonatal infections/sepsis

3

2nd leading cause of newborn death

Respiratory distress of newborn

4

Leading causes of infant death in industrialized countries include

congenital anomalies
gestation/LBW
SIDS
NICU procedures

5

Leading causes of infant death in developing countries

Birth asphyxia
Infection
Prematurity complications

6

Newborn screening under RA NO. 9288 Newborn Screening Act of 2004 includes:

congenital hypothyroidism
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
PKU
GAL
G6PD-D

7

Leading causes of child mortality

acute LRTI and pneumonia
bronchitis
acute watery diarrhea
influenza
hypertension

8

Expanded program for immunization

3 DPT PV
1 Measles
3 hepaB
1 BCG

9

MBFH week?

August 10

10

What is "milk code"

no milk bottles in the nursey and areas of newborns

11

Anatomic difference Child vs Adult:
eustachian tube

shorter, narrower, more prone to infection in children

12

Anatomic difference Child vs Adult:
chest wall

thinner (can auscultate from back)

13

Anatomic difference Child vs Adult:
Heart

oriented horizontally in children

14

Anatomic difference Child vs Adult:
Sutures

obviously open in infants

15

Anatomic difference Child vs Adult:
tympanic membrane

more vertical in children

more horizontal in adults

16

Immunological difference Child vs Adult:
antibodies

children lack IgM and are more susceptible to gram (-)

17

Hyperactivity in children >4 y/o could be interpreted as

ADHD

2-4 y/o: hyperactivity is normal

18

Fetal brain is prone to hypoxia commonly induced by these illnesses in the mother:

toxemia
HTN
anemia
CHF

19

LGA or babies with metabolic problems could be due to:

diabetic parent

20

TORCH infection

Toxoplasmosis
Rubella
CMV
Herpes

21

Infection causing damage during 1st trimester is usually

viral

22

Infection causing damage in 2nd half of pregnancy

protozoan

23

Deafness, cataract, CHD, mental retardation

congenital rubella syndrome

24

Abnormal uterine condition that affects fetal positioning, amniotic bands --> amputation of extremities

Myoma (uterine fibroids) are non-cancerous tumors that grow within the muscle tissue of the uterus.

25

Problem of pregnancy in which the placenta grows in the lowest part of the uterus and covers all or part of the opening to the cervix.

Compromises fetal brain blood supply!

placenta previa

26

Separation of the placenta from its attachment to the uterus wall.

Compromises fetal brain blood supply!

abruptio placenta

27

Risk of jaundice, kernicterus and may cause cerebral palsy as a result of this immunologic condition

Rh and ABO incompatibility

Type O mother. Other type baby

28

Drug or non-drug therapy that could cause congenital malformations (such as amputations)

thalidomie
actinic rays
irradiation

29

Fetal effects of alcohol:

congenital anomalies
IUGR
fetal alcohol syndrome

30

Fetal effects of corticosteroids

cleft palate

31

Fetal effects of cigarettes

LBW

32

Fetal effects of amphetamine

CHD
IUGR

33

Fetal effects of caffeine

spontaneous abortion anomalies
prematurity

34

Fetal effects of chloroquine

deafness
pigmentation of retina

35

Fetal effects of phenytoin

congenital anomalies
IUGR

36

Fetal effects of dicoumarol

fetal bleeding
death

37

Fetal effects of propanolol

hypoglycemia
bradycardia

38

Premature if born at what AOG

<38 weeks

39

Postmature if born at what AOG

>42 weeks

40

Normal if born at what AOG

38-42

37-42

41

SGA if BW =

<2.5kg

42

LGA if BW =

>4kg

43

Babies are considered asphyxiated/cyanotic at birth if:

APGAR = 7 or lower

44

Hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia in neonate is usually due to:

metabolic disturbance in mother (such as DM)

have seizures, convulsions leading to brain damage

45

Most critical period of growth: organogenesis

2-9 weeks (embryonic stage)

46

Fetal stage starts at approximately what age?

9 weeks to birth

47

Growth phase predominantly GH dependent

2nd phase - middle childhood

48

Growth phase represented by a combination of factors affecting FETAL growth coupled with earl expression of growth hormone

1st phase - first 3 years to 6 yr

49

0-14 days of intrauterine development

ovular phase

50

Self-sufficient stage of intrauterine development

ovular phase

51

When embryo is considered parasitic

embryonic phase (2nd week to end of 8th week)

52

Characterized by rapid increase in complexity and proliferation but little increase in total size

ovular phase

53

Phase when organogenesis occurs

embryonic

54

Intrauterine development phase where cells increase in size and number with structural remodeling of organ systems

fetal phase

55

Intrauterine development phase when food is stored in yolk sac and nutrition acquired from pabulum

ovular phase

56

Steady growth - plateau in growth curve at this age of development

0-6 years; 6-10 years

57

Physiological weight loss occurs when

1st week (up to 10%)

58

Weight gain of newborn per day for FIRST THREE MONTHS =

20-30g / day

59

Average BW for Filipinos

3 kg

60

Mnemonic for expected weight:
<6 months

Months X 600 + BW (grams)

61

Mnemonic for expected weight:
6-12 months

Months X 500 + BW (grams)

62

Mnemonic for expected weight:
2 years and up

Years X 2 + 8

63

Current weight and age are known. What mnemonic can be used to estimate past weight?

4-5 months = BW X 2
1 year = BW X 3
2 years = BW X 4
3 years = BW X 5
5 years = BW X 6
7 years = BW X 7
10 years= BW X 10

64

1 year old baby weighs 12 kg. What was his weight at 5 months?

12 kg / 3 = 4 kg
4 kg is BW
4 kg (BW) X 2 (at 4-5 months old) = 8
8kg

4-5 months = BW X 2 <--- use this first
2 years = BW X 4
3 years = BW X 5
5 years = BW X 6
7 years = BW X 7
10 years= BW X 10

65

Recumbent height is used for children ages:

<2 years old

66

Proper stance of children when taking height measurements

barefoot with heels together

67

Proper/accurate recumbent height measurements require:

1) child lying down on a tape measure or movable bar
2) two examiners

68

Average height at birth

50cm

69

Birth length is doubled at what age?

4 years

70

Birth length is tripled at what age?

13 years

71

Birth length is +50% at what age?

1 year

72

Girls reach ultimate height at what age?
Boys?

17-19 years
>20 yrs, up to 25 years

73

Mnemonic computation for normal height in cm

Years X 5 + 80

For 1 year olds use Birth Length X 1.5

74

At what age do boys reach HALF their expected height

2 years

75

Height gained from Birth - 3 months

9cm

76

Height gained from 4-6 months

8cm

77

Height gained from 7-9 months

5cm

78

Height gained from 10-12 months

3cm

79

Landmark in head circumference measure

glabella and occiput

80

Expected HC increase at 1 year

4 inches or 10 cm

81

Expected HC increase at 1-4 months

1/2" per month

82

Expected HC increase at 5-12 months

1/4" per month

83

Expected HC increase at 2nd year

1"

84

Expected HC increase at 3rd to 5th year

1/2" per year (1 1/2" in 3 total years)

85

Expected HC increase at 6th years up to 20 years old.

1/2" inch per 5 years

86

Average HC at birth

35 cm

87

When HC > CC

birth

88

When HC < CC

1 year+

89

When HC = CC

6 months old

90

Thoracic index =

transverse diameter / AP diameter

91

TI at birth

1

92

TI at 1 year

1.25

93

TI at 6 years

1.35

94

Midarm circumference taken at

midpoint between the acromion and olecranon

95

U/L body proportion ratio at birth

1.7

96

Age when U/L body proportion ratio is 1.0

10 years old

97

Face of newborn, whitish dots on nose

milia

98

Transient erythematous rashes in newborn

erythema toxicum

99

Transient whitish spots on palate

Epstein peral

100

Bluish spots on buttocks of babies

Mongolian spots

101

Pineal body calcifies at

10 y/o

102

Brain begins to develop at what age

4-6 weeks AOG

103

Myelinization complete at what age

6-12 months

104

Critical period in brain development

embryonic/early fetal
late fetal + infancy

105

Fully developed brain a what age?

10 y/o

106

Greatest increase in brain weight?

first year

Recall HC increase greatest in first year.

107

Hyposthesia lasts how long in newborn

(lack of pain sensation)
1 week

108

Most sensitive area of baby

face

109

Clear vision achieved by

4 months/16weeks

110

20/20 vision achieved by what age?

7 y/o

possibly 4-5 y/o

111

Most developed sensation at birth

auditory

112

Acute taste discrimination occurs at what age

3 months (new formula may be rejected)

113

Heart goes to vertical position starting at

1 year old
also weight of heart has doubled

114

Normal HR in newborns?
1-2 year olds?
Older children?

140-160 bpm
100-110 bpm
60-100 bpm

115

Blood volume per kg in newborn?
infant?
adult?

80-100 ml/kg
75-90 ml/kg
70-85 ml/kg

Younger = more blood volume per weight

116

Adult BP achieved by what age

10 y/o

117

Hypertrophy of tonsils and adenoids at what age usually?

5-6 years old

Coincides with greater risk of infection

118

All lymphatic organs atrophy except

spleen

119

Production of antibodies at

2-3 months old

Normal rate of production at 6 months old

120

Activity of these digestive enzyme(s) is/are normal at birth

renin, trypsin

121

Activity of these digestive enzyme(s) is/are low in newborn

amylase, lipase

122

Activity of these digestive enzyme(s) is/are low throughout childhood

lipase

123

RR of newborn

40-60 / min

124

Bronchus more susceptible to obstruction

right

125

Critical age for undescended testes

2 years old

Must undergo surgery to prevent sterility

126

Sequence of teeth

LC
UC
LL
UL

127

Age when child will react by shoving pain stimulus way

9 months

128

Persistence of primitive reflexes could be a sign of

development disability or pathologic
eg Cerebral Palsy

129

Reflex: sudden noise

moro

130

Reflex: stroking or tapping para-spinal while infant lays on stomach

truncal incurvation
galant reflex

131

Reflex: stroking cheek --> sucking motions

rooting

132

Reflex: extend arms as if breaking fall when head faces downwarsd

parachute

133

Reflex: learning gravity and mastering head and neck control

tonic labyrinthe