Flashcards in 4. Sports Psychology Deck (28):
What is a skill?
Skill: a learned action or behaviour.
What is meant by ability?
Ability: an inherited, stable trait that determines an individual's potential to learn or acquire a skill.
What is a trait?
Trait: distinguishing qualities or characteristics belonging to a person.
What are the 4 classifications of skill?
Basic - Complex
Open - Closed
Self Paced - Externally Paced
Gross Movement - Fine Movement
What are the 2 types of goals + their definitions?
Performance Goals: personal standards to be achieved. Performers compare themselves against their personal bests.
Outcome Goals: goals that focus on the end result, on winning.
What are SMART targets?
What is information processing?
What are the 2 types of feedback in information processing?
Intrinsic: received from the performer themselves, it can be from emotions or it can be kinaesthetic
Extrinsic: received from outside from the performer
What is guidance + what are the different types?
Guidance: a method of conveying information to a performer.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of verbal guidance?
+ Useful for higher level performers
+ Good way of highlighting key teaching points
+ Useful for sharing basic information and instructions
+ Questions can make the performers think
- Can result in information overload
- Can be boring
- Can be difficult to hear
- Complex things are hard to explain verbally
What are the advantages and disadvantages of visual guidance?
+ Useful for all levels of performers
+ Good for inexperienced performers
+ Allows performers to see what is required
+ Performers can copy
- Demonstration must be good
- Some skills are too complex
- Not effective if you can't see properly
What are the advantages and disadvantages of manual guidance?
+ Good for complete beginners
+ Allows performers to develop the correct feel
- A movement can feel different when someone else is moving your body
- A performer may not be motivated as they are not doing it all themselves
What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical guidance?
+ Good for potentially dangerous skills
+ Can gain a feel for the movement without fear
+ Builds confidence
- Equipment is expensive
- Performer can rely on the aid
What are the 6 types of feedback?
Knowledge of results
Knowledge of performance
What are the advantages and disadvantages of positive feedback?
+ Motivates performer
+ Makes the performer feel like they have successful aspects to their performance
- It can emphasise their performance and make the performer feel like they've done much better than they may have
What are the advantages and disadvantages of negative feedback?
+ It enables a coach to explain how the performer can do better
+ Can prioritise specific skills they need to improve
- Can become demoralising for beginners
- Too many comments can leave a performer struggling to know how to respond
What are the advantages and disadvantages of knowledge of results feedback?
+ Gives the performer a quick measure of their success
- Can be demotivating for other performers when there is only one winner
What are the advantages and disadvantages of knowledge of performance feedback?
+ There are many aspects to one performance so the feedback can be very detailed for experienced performers
- Can be challenging to break down the performance
What are the advantages and disadvantages of extrinsic feedback?
+ Beginners need extrinsic feedback from coaches to learn the basic skills
+ More experienced performers can combine intrinsic and extrinsic feedback to get the full picture
- It can be difficult to get the advice and help of a qualified coach, especially for beginners
What are the advantages and disadvantages of intrinsic feedback?
+ Experienced performers can make immediate adjustments
- Requires high levels of knowledge
What is meant by arousal?
Arousal: a physical and mental state of alertness and readiness, varying from deep sleep to intense excitement.
What does the 'inverted-U' theory mean?
Increasing arousal leads to increase in performance until it reaches an optimal level, in which increasing arousal leads to a decrease in performance.
How can we manage arousal levels?
Mental rehearsal, visualisation and imagery
Positive self talks
What is meant by aggression?
Aggression: a deliberate intent to harm or injure another person, but in sport it can be more controlled. It can be physical or mental.
What are the 2 types and what do they mean?
Indirect: an aggressive act that does not involve direct physical contact. It is taken out on an object in order to gain an advantage.
Direct: an aggressive act that involves physical contact with others.
What are the 2 personality types?
Introvert: a quiet, shy, passive and reserved personality type, usually associated with individual sports
Extrovert: a sociable, active, talkative and outgoing personality type, associated with team sports.
What is motivation?
Motivation: the drive to succeed, or the desire to achieve or be inspired to do something. Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic.