4.02 - Articulation & Resonance B Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.02 - Articulation & Resonance B Deck (120):
0

What are the four Intrinsic Lingual Muscles?

Superior Longitudinal Muscle

Inferior Longitudinal Muscle

Vertical Muscle

Transverse Muscle

1

What are the two Intrinsic Lingual Muscles in the Longitudinal Dimension?

Superior Longitudinal Muscle

Inferior Longitudinal Muscle

2

What are the two Intrinsic Lingual Muscles in the Vertical Dimension?

Vertical Muscle

Transverse Muscle

3

What does the Superior Longitudinal Muscle do?

Raises the tongue tip

4

What does the Inferior Longitudinal Muscle do?

Lowers the tongue tip

5

What does the Transverse Lingual Muscle do?

Narrows the tonge

Makes the tongue skinny & pointed

6

What happens when you simultaneously contract the Superior & Inferior Longitudinal Muscles?

Retracts the tongue

7

What do the Vertical & Transverse Lingual Muscles do?

Change the shape of the tongue

8

What are extrinsic muscles?

One that connect with the system at one end and connects elsewhere with the other end.

9

What are the four Extrinsic Lingual Muscles?

Palatoglossus

Genioglossus

Styloglossus

Hyoglossus

10

The Genioglossus starts at the ______ and ______.

Chin

Fans out backwards into the mouth

11

What does the Genioglossus do if there is posterior contraction?

Protrudes the tongue

12

What does the Genioglossus do if there is anterior contraction?

Retracts the tongue

13

The Styloglossus connects the ______ to the _______.

Styloid process

Inferior sides of the tongue

14

What does the Styloglossus do?

(2)

Elevates the back of the tongue

Pulls the tongue back

15

What class of sounds do we use the Styloglossus to produce?

Velars

16

The Palatoglossus connects the ______ to the _______.

Velum

Tongue

17

What does the Palatoglossus do if you fix the part at the palate?

Raises the tongue

18

What does the Palatoglossus do if you fix the part at the tongue?

Lowers the velum

19

What are two other names for the Palatoglossus?

Glossopalatine

Anterior Faucial Pillar

20

The Hyoglossus connects the ______ to the ______.

Hyoid

Tongue

21

What does the Hyoglossus do?

Pulls the sides of the tongue down

22

When the Velopharyngeal Port is down, it is ______.

Open

23

When the Velopharyngeal Port is closed, it is ______.

Up

24

When the Mandible is depressed, it is ______.

Open

25

What is the main purpose of the Extrinsic Muscles of the Tongue?

To change the tongue's position

26

What provides the main innervation for the Intrinsic Lingual Muscles?

Cranial Nerve XII

Hypoglossal Nerve

27

What provides the main innervation for the Extrinsic Lingual Muscles?

CN XII

Hypoglossal Nerve

28

What innervates the Palatoglossus?

Pharyngeal Plexus

29

What makes up the Pharyngeal Plexus?

CN X - Vagus Nerve

CN XI - Accessory Nerve

30

What may be part of the Pharyngeal Plexus?

CN IX

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

31

What are the five categories of the Muscles of Facial Expression?

Circular

Transverse

Angular

Parallel

Vertical

32

What is another word for Circular Muscles?

Sphincteric Muscles

33

What are the two Circular Facial Muscles?

Orbicularis Oris Superior

Orbicularis Oris Inferior

34

What do the Circular Facial Muscles do?

Constrict

35

What are the five Angular Facial Muscles?

Zygomatic Minor

Zygomatic Major

Levator Labii Superioris

Depressor Labii Inferior

Levator Labii Superioris Aleque Nasi

36

What do the Angular Facial Muscles do?

(2)

Go diagonally (oblique) to the corners of the mouth

Pulls upwards

37

What are the two Transverse Facial Muscles?

Buccinators

Risorius

38

What do the Transverse Facial Muscles do?

Pull straight back (like a grimace)

39

What are the two Parallel Facial Muscles?

Incisivus Labii Superioris

Incisivus Labii Inferioris

40

What do the Parallel Facial Muscles do?

(3)

Purse lips

Constrict lips

Pull lips towards incisors

41

What are the three Vertical Facial Muscles?

Mentalis

Levator Anguli Oris

Depressor Anguli Oris

42

What do the Vertical Facial Muscles do?

(2)

Push lips forward

Pout

43

The Risorius is for _______.

Laughter

44

What does the Orbicularis Orbis do?

Constrict the oral opening

45

What does the Zygomatic Minor do?

(2)

Elevates upper lip

Pulls corner of mouth upward

46

What does the Zygomatic Major do?

Elevates and retracts the angle of the mouth

47

What does the Levator Labii Superioris do?

(2)

Elevates upper lip

Pulls corner of mouth upward

48

What does the Depressor Labii Inferior?

(3)

Lowers the bottom lip

Pulls away from midline

Pulls lips down and out

49

What does the Levator Labii Superioris Aleque Nasi do?

(2)

Elevates the upper lip

Dilates nostrils

50

What do the Buccinators do?

Pulls angles of the mouth back laterally

51

What does the Risorius do?

Retracts the lip at the corners

52

What does the Mentalis do?

(3)

Elevates and wrinkles chin

Pulls lower lip out

"Chin buncher"

53

What does the Levator Anguli Oris do?

Draws up corner of the mouth

54

What does the Depressor Anguli Oris do?

(2)

Depresses corners of the mouth

Helps compress upper lip across the lower lip

55

What muscles close the lips?

Orbicularis Oris

56

What muscles raise the upper lip?

(3)

Levator Labii Superioris

Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi

Zygomatic Minor

57

What muscles lower the bottom lip?

Depressor Labii Inferioris

58

What muscles round the lips?

Orbicularis Oris

59

What muscles protrude the lips?

(2)

Mentalis

Orbicularis Oris

60

What muscles retract the angles of the mouth?

(3)

Buccinator

Risorius

Zygomaticus Major

61

What muscles raise the corners of the mouth?

(2)

Levator Anguli Oris

Zygomaticus Major

62

What muscles lower the angles of the mouth?

(2)

Depressor Anguli Oris

Platysma

63

What innervates the Muscles of Facial Expression?

CN VII

Facial Nerve

64

What creates Resonance?

Velopharyngeal Port Modulation

65

What are the Passive Forces of the Velopharyngeal-Nasal Apparatus?

(5)

Muscle recoil

Cartilages and connective tissue

Surface tension

Gravity

Aeromechanical forces (resistances)

66

What are the Active Forces of the Velopharyngeal-Nasal Apparatus?

(2)

Muscles of the Pharynx

Muscles of the Velum

67

What are the control variables for VP Modulation?

(3)

Airway resistance to the flow of the air

Muscular pressure at the velopharyngeal sphincter

Acoustic impedance in opposition to the flow of sound energy

68

What is the Velopharyngeal Sphincter?

(4)

Superior Constrictor

Palatopharyngeus

Levator Veli Palatini

Uvulus

69

What is Acoustic Impediance?

How much sound pressure is generated by the molecules of a particular medium

(Air vs. Water - Water has more impediance)

70

What are the five muscles of the Velum?

Tensor veli palatini

Levator veli palatini

Palatoglossus

Palatopharyngeus

Uvulus

71

What is another name for the Tensor Veli Palatini?

Palatal Tensor

72

What is another name for the Levator Veli Palatini?

Palatal Levator

73

What are two other names for the Palatopharyngeus?

Pharyngeopalatine

Posterior Faucial Pillar

74

What are two other names for the Palatoglossus?

Glossopalatine

Anterior Faucial Pillar

75

What is another name for the Uvulus?

Muscularus uvulae

76

What is another name for the Palatal Tensor?

Tensor Veli Palatini

77

What is another name for the Palatal Levator?

Levator Veli Palatini

78

What are two other names for the Glossopalatine?

Palatoglossus

Anterior Faucial Pillar

79

What are two other names for the Pharyngealpalatine?

Palatopharyngeus

Posterior Faucial Pillar

80

What is another name for the Musculus Uvulae?

Uvulus

81

What are two other names for the Anterior Faucial Pillar?

Palatoglossus

Glossopalatine

82

What are two other names for the Posterior Faucial Pillar?

Palatopharyngeus

Pharyngopalatine

83

Do the Constrictor Muscles cover the anterior quarter of the throat?

No

84

What is the Posterior Median Raphe?

The midline of the poster portion of the Constrictor Muscle

85

What are the two muscles that depress the vellem?

Palatoglossus

Palatopharyngeus

86

What are the two muscles that raise the Vellum?

Levator veli palatini

Uvulus

87

What does the Uvulus do?

(2)

Raises the Vellum

Shortens the Vellum

88

What does the Palatopharyngeus do?

(2)

Pulls the palate down

Makes the vellum smaller & more constricted

89

What does the Levator Veli Palatini do?

(2)

Raises the vellum

Shortens the vellum

90

What does the Tensor Veli Palatini do?

(2)

Opens the Eustachian Tubes

Is not involved in raising or lowering palate

91

What is the Palatal Aponeurosis?

(2)

A tough tissue that muscles connect to

A sheet of tendons

92

What does the Palatal Aponeurosis attach to?

Hamulus of the Sphenoid (Skull)

93

Are the Palatoglossus and the Palatopharyngeus parallel to each other?

No

94

The Palatoglossus is ______.

Angled

95

The Palatopharyngus is more ______.

Vertical

96

What provides the main innervation for the Pharyngeal & Velar Muscles? What is the exception?

Pharyngeal Plexus (CN XI, CNX, and maybe CN IX)

The Tensor Veli Palatini is innervated by CN V - Trigeminal Nerve

97

How does the Superior Constrictor fit into the vellar muscles?

When it constricts, it pulls the back of the pharynx forward making it easier to gain velopharyngeal closure

98

What does the Salpingopharyngeus do?

(2)

Elevates

Raises everything up

99

What does the Stylopharngeus do?

(2)

Pulls laterally

Dilates the pharynx

100

The oral cavity as ______ openings and ________ impediance.

Wide

Low

101

The nasal cavity as ______ openings and ________ impediance.

Small

Greater

102

What are the three Velopharyngeal Control Variables?

Airway Resistances

Muscular Compression

Acoustic Impediance

103

How does Airway Resistance contribute to the Velopharynx?

Airflow is resisted as passageways become smaller

104

How does Muscular Compression contribute to the Velopharynx?

Muscles have to work to counteract airflow

105

How does Acoustic Impediance contribute to the Velopharynx?

Acoustic energy is impeded/resisted when passages are narrowed or surfaces are convoluted

106

Do VP Modulations occur constantly during running speech?

Yes

107

Is VP Modulation fast or slow? What occurs because of this?

Slow

Coarticulation

108

What are Aperture Changes?

Changes in the size of the opening

109

Velar musculature of opposing forces is activated during running speech to achieve ______ and ______ of VP port aperture changes.

Mechanical tuning

Smooth modulation

110

What are sonorant sounds?

(2)

Those with more resonance

Liquids, nasals, & glides

111

In the time it takes for one complete cycle of the fundamental frequency, there will be ____ complete cycles for F2 and _____ complete cycles for F3.

Two

Three

112

What is a complex waveform?

The sum of combined simple waveforms

113

When we add more sinusoids, we have a more ______.

Complex Tone

114

A complex tone (spectrum) is similar to the tone produced by the ______.

Larynx

115

Voiced speech has several frequencies that are __________.

In harmony with one another

116

F1 is inversely related to _________.

Tongue height

117

F2 is proportional to ________.

Tongue advancement

118

When a movement is isometric, there is ______ movement.

Little

119

When a movement is isotonic, there is ______ movement

Lots of