Flashcards in 4.1. Explain How Structure Of Main Parts Of Brain Relate To Its Functions Deck (17):
Explain brain development
1. Embryo: NS develops from hollow tube, becomes folded into complex structure of brain
2. More neurons made = regions of brain folded, forming gyri and sulci
3. This arrangement packs more neurons into a smaller area
What are the brain regions?
1. Cerebral hemispheres
3. Brain stem
Where is grey matter found?
1. Outer surface of brain = grey matter and deep in the brain (nuclei, basal ganglia)
2. Tracts of axons (white matter) connect cerebral hemispheres = commissures
What is the cerebral cortex ?
1. Outer part of cerebrum
2. Where conscious mind found
3. Enables self awareness of ourselves and sensations, communication, remembering, understanding, initiating voluntary movements
Why is each cerebral hemisphere concerned with the sensory and motor functions of the opposite side of the body?
Because nerves cross over at the base of the brain
How do gyri (elevated ridges) and sulci (shallow grooves) relate to the brains functions?
1. increase surface area brain (central, lateral sulcus) This allows more neurons to be packed into the cortex and increases the brain's ability to process information.
2. Deeper grooves (fissures) separate the different lobes of the brain
(median longitudinal fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres)
(Transverse cerebral fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres from cerebellum)
How does the structure of the ventricles relate to the brains functions?
1. The ventricles are networks of cavities in the brain that help evenly distribute CSF to provide cushioning and circulate nutrients and remove waste from the cerebral cortex.
How does the structure of cerebrospinal fluid relate to the functions of the brain?
1. Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear, watery fluid that provides cushioning and shock absorbance (protection) for the brain while also helping to circulate nutrients and remove waste.
The meninges functions primarily to protect and support CNS (connects brain + spinal cord to skull and spinal canal)
How does the structure of the meninges relate to the functions of the brain?
1. The meninges forms a protective barrier, protecting the sensitive organs of the CNS against trauma.
2. Contains ample supply of blood
vessels that deliver blood to CNS tissue.
3. Produces cerebrospinal fluid
How does the structure of Broca’s Area relate to the brains functions?
What happens if you damage the area?
1. Broca’s area is responsible for motor functions of speech (articulation)
2. Difficulty speaking (know what they want to say but can’t find the words), speech faltering
How does the structure of Wernicke’s Area relate to the brains functions?
What happens if you damage the area?
1. Responsible for comprehension of speech, putting thoughts into words, constructing sentences
2. Damage = words become jumbled up (word salad), language development impaired
What happens if you damage the primary visual cortex? (Occipital)
1. Responsible for sight
2. Damage = Blindness
What happens if you damage the frontal lobe?
How does the structure of the primary motor cortex relate to the brains functions?
1. The role of the primary motor cortex is to generate neural impulses that control the execution of movement
- control voluntary movement
- lie in posterior part of frontal lobes
Homunculus: hands, face, lips
How does the structure of the somatosensory cortex relate to the brains functions?
1. The somatosensory cortex receives all sensory input from the body. Neurons that sense feelings in our skin, pain, visual, or auditory stimuli, all send their information to the somatosensory cortex for processing.
2. Sensory areas:
- areas concerned with conscious awareness of sensation
- sensory areas of the cortex occur in the parietal lobes
Homunculus: Face, Lips, tongue, fingers
What would damage to the somatosensory cortex do?
This can happen as the result of increased use of a body part.
Damage to the sensory cortex results in decreased sensory thresholds, an inability to discriminate the properties of tactile stimuli or to identify objects by touch.