The ____ is the most prominent part of the mammalian brain. It consists of two cerebral hemispheres, one on the left and one on the right.
Each ____ is organised to receive sensory information, mostly from the contralateral (opposite) side of the body, and to control muscles, mostly on the contralateral side, by way of axons to the spinal-cord and cranial nerve nuclei.
The outer portion of the forebrain is the ____ ____.
Under the cerebral cortex are other structures, including the ____, which is the main source of input to the cerebral cortex.
The ____ ____ are a set of structures important for certain aspects of movement.
A number of other interlinked structures, known as the ____ ____, form a border around the brainstem. These structures are particularly important for motivations and emotions, such as eating, drinking, sexual activity, anxiety, and aggression.
The limbic system includes the ____ bulb, ____, ____, ____, and ____ ____ of the cerebral cortex.
olfactory, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus
The ____ is a pair of structures (left and right) in the centre of the forebrain.
Most ____ ____ goes first to the thalamus, which processes it and sends output to the cerebral cortex.
Many nuclei of the thalamus receive their input from a sensory system, such as ____, and transmit information to a single area of the cerebral cortex.
The cerebral cortex sends information back to the thalamus, prolonging and magnifying certain kinds of input at the expense of others, thereby ____ ____ on particular stimuli.
The ____ is a small area near the base of the brain just ventral to the thalamus.
Partly through nerves and partly through hypothalamic hormones, the hypothalamus conveys messages to the ____ ____, altering its release of hormones.
Damage to any hypothalamic nucleus tends to abnormalities in ____ ____, such as eating, drinking, temperature regulation, sexual behaviour, fighting, or activity level.
The pituitary gland is an ____ (hormone producing) gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus by a stalk that contains neurons, blood vessels, and connective tissue.
In response to messages from the hypothalamus, the pituitary synthesises ____ that the blood carries to organs throughout the body.
Then ____ ____, a group of subcortical structures peripheral to the thalamus, include three major structures: caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus.
It has long been known that damage to the basal ganglia impairs movement, as in conditions such as ____ disease and ____ disease.
Parkinson's : Huntington's
The basal ganglia are critical for ____ and ____ how to do something (as opposed to learning factual information or remembered specific events). And also important for attention, language, planning, and other cognitive functions.
learning and remembering
Several structures lie on the ventral surface of the forebrain, including the ____ ____, which receives input from the hypothalamus and the basal ganglia and sends axons that release acetylcholine to widespread areas in the cerebral cortex.
The nucleus basalis is a key part of the brains system for ____, ____, and ____.
arousal, wakefulness, and attention
Patients with Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease have impairments of ____ and ____ because of inactivity or deterioration of their nucleus basalis.
attention and intellect
The ____ is a large structure between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex, mostly toward the posterior of the forebrain.
The hippocampus is critical for storing certain kinds of ____, especially ____ for individual events. People with hippocampal damage have trouble storing new ____, but they do not lose all the ____ they had before the damage occurred.
The nervous system begins its development as a tube surrounding a fluid canal. The canal persists into adulthood as the ____ ____, a fluid filled channel in the centre of the spinal-cord, and as the ____, four fluid filled cavities within the brain.
central canal : ventricles
Cells called choroid plexus inside the four ventricles produce ____ ____ (CSF), a clear fluid similar to blood plasma.
CFS fills the ventricles, flowing from the lateral ventricles to the third and fourth ventricles. From the four ventricle, some of it flows into the central canal of the spinal-cord, but more goes into the narrow spaces between the brain and the thin ____, membranes that surround the brain and spinal-cord.
In one of those narrow spaces, the ____ ____, the blood gradually we absorbs the CSF.
Although the brain has no pain receptors, the meninges do. And ____ – inflammation of the meninges – is painful.
Swollen blood vessels in the meninges are responsible for the pain of a ____ ____.
Cerebrospinal fluid ____ a brain against mechanical shock when the head moves. It also provides ____. It also provides a reservoir of hormones and nutrition for the brain and spinal court.
cushions : buoyancy