Flashcards in 4.2 - The Knee Structure Deck (35):
What are the ridges on the back of the femur called?
Proximally, medial boarder becomes the pectineal line and the lateral border becomes the gluteal tuberosity.
Distally, get medial and lateral supracondular line.
Where is the intercondylar fossa on the femur?
What makes up the patellofemoral groove?
The anterior surface of the femoral condyle and the patella
How is the patella joint to the tibia?
Apex f patella is connected to tibial tuberosity by patella ligament
Where does the quadriceps tendon attach?
The base of the patella
What are the two main functions of the patella?
How does the patella articulate with the femur?
Lateral facet articulates with lateral condyle
Medial facet articulates with medial condyle
Facets are on posterior surface of patella
What does the tibial plateau articulate with?
The femoral condyle to form the major articulation of the knee joint
What’s the intracondylar eminence?
Posterior, below the tibial plateau between the two condyles
Main site for attachment of ligaments and menisci of the knee
Where does the patella ligament attach?
The tibial tuberosity
What’s the medial malleolus?
Bony projection on medial side that articulates with tarsal bones to form ankle Joint
What are the articulation of the fibula?
Proximal tibiofibular joint - lateral condyle of tibia
Distal tibiofibular joint - articulates with fibular notch of tibia
Ankle joint - articulates with talus o the bone
Where is the common fibular nerve found on the fibular?
Posterior and lateral surfaces of the fibular neck
What is the weight bearing joint of the knee?
What’s the main extensor the the knee?
Quadriceps femoris (inserts directly over knee)
Patella minimises wear and tear of the tendon, being formed inside the quad femoris
What are the purpose of menisci?
To deepen the articular surface of the tibia = increased stability of joint
To act as shock absorbers
They attach to the intracondylar area of the tibia
What is the medial meniscus fixed to?
The tibial collateral ligament and the joint capsule
Any damage to the tibial collateral ligament results in tearing of the medial meniscus
What are the 4 bursae of the Knee joint?
What are the anterior thigh muscles?
Where does he iliopsoas attach, what are its actions and whats its innervated by?
Psoas major = lumbar vertebrae
Illiacus = illiacus fossa of pelvis
Then go to lesser trochanter of femur
Flexes the lower limb and helps with lateral rotation
Illiacus = femoral nerve
Psoas major = L1-3
What muscles make up the quadriceps femoris and what do they collectively do?
The main extensor of the knee (and stabilises patella)
All innervated by the femoral nerve
Where does the vastus lateralis attach?
Greater trochanter to the lateral lip of the linea aspera
Where does the vastus medialis attach?
The intertrochanteric line and the medial lip of the linea aspera
Where does the rectus femoris attach and what does it do?
From the ilium, superior to the acetabulum and attaches to the patella by the quadriceps femoris tendon
Extends knee but also flexes thigh at hip joint
Where does sartorious attach, what does it do and whats its innervation?
Originates from anterior superior iliac spine and attaches to the superior medial surface of the tibia
It’s a flexor of the hip and knee, and abducts + laterally rotates
Innervated by Femoral nerve
Where does pectineus attach, what does it do and whats its innervation?
Pectineal line on pelvis
Attaches to pectineal line on posterior side of femur, just below lesser trochanter
Addiction and flexion at the hip joint
What are the medial thigh muscles and what do they do collectively?
All adductor the hip
Innervated by obturator nerve and arterial supply is obturator artery.
Where des the adductor Magnus attach?
Inferior rami of pubis and attaches to the linea aspera of the femur
Hamstring portion goes from ischial tuberosity to the adductor tubercle and medial supracondylar line of the femur
Where does adductor longus attach to and what does it do?
Originates from pubis and attaches broadly to linea aspera of femur
Adductor of hip and medial rotator of thigh
Where does adductor brevis attach?
Lies below adductor longus
Attaches from body of pubis and inferior pubic rami to linea aspera of femur
Where does obturator externus attach?
Originates from membrane of obturator foramen and attaches to posterior aspect of greater trochanter
Where does gracillus attach and what does it do?
Attaches from inferior rami of pubis and attaches to medial surface of the tibia
Adducts thigh at hip and flexes the knee
What are the boarders of the femoral triangle, the contents and whats the roof and Floor?
Superior - inguinal ligament
Lateral - sartorious
Medial - adductor longus
Roof = fascia latae
Floor = iliopsoas, pectineus and adductor longus
- femoral nerve
- femoral artery
- femoral vein
- femoral canal (lymph)
- empty space
All contained in a femoral sheath
NAVEL - from lateral to medial
So, what are the hip flexors?