4A/4B Flashcards Preview

Psychology > 4A/4B > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4A/4B Deck (25):
1

THE BIG FIVE Personality

OCEAN
Openness
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism

2

Openness

Curious, original, intellectual, creative and open to new ideas

3

Conscientiousness

Organized, systematic, punctual, achievement, orientated and dependable

4

Extraversion

Outgoing, talkative, sociable and enjoys social situations

5

Agreeableness

Affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting and warm

6

Neuroticism

Anxious, Irritable, temperamental, moody

7

Definition of IQ

intelligence quotient (mental age/chronological age x 100, where a score of 100 is average).

8

Limitations of IQ

averages all domains of intelligence, does not consider each separately

9

Fluid intelligence

ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for which personal experiences does not provide a solution
Declines with age

10

Crystallised intelligence

ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems
Improves with age

11

What 2 factors contribute to IQ?

Genetic Factors: account for 1/2 to 2/3 of variation, no single intelligence gene
Environmental Factors: accounts for 1/3 to 1/2 of variation in IQ
Correlation: identical twins living together > identical twins reared apart > fraternal twins living together > siblings living together > unrelated individuals living together > unrelated individuals living apart

12

Baron Cohen’s Empathising/Systematising Theory

Empathising: able to infer thoughts or feelings of another person and produce an appropriate reaction
Systematising: drive to analyse or construct any kind of system (i.e. understanding the rules that govern a system, in order to predict how that system will behave)

13

Gender differences in Baron Cohen’s Empathising/Systematising Theory

females are more empathetic, males are more systematising; autism is considered a model of an ‘extremely male brain

14

Transactional Definition of Stress Definition:

stress is a condition that results when the person/environment transactions lead the individual to perceive a discrepancy between the demands of the situation and the coping resources available.

15

Transactional Definition of Stress Application:

hospitalisation for medical/surgical procedures – there are mental demands of the threat of hospitalisation to their wellbeing (e.g. pain) and there may be limited coping resources as there is little they can do to help themselves

16

Procedural Information:

regarding the procedures being undertaken

17

Sensory Information:

information about the sensations experienced

18

Dual Process Hypothesis

procedural and sensory information work in different ways. Procedural information allows patients to match ongoing events with expectations in a non-emotional manner, whereas sensory information works by ‘mapping’ a non-threatening interpretation onto these expectations.

19

Problem Focused Coping
Definition and Examples

Definition: efforts directed at changing the environment in some way or changing one’s own actions or attitudes.
Examples: seeking health information, learning procedures, pacing activity, changing behaviour

20

Emotion Focused Coping
Definition and Examples

Definition: efforts designed to manage stress-related emotional responses in order to maintain one’s own morale and allow one to function.
Examples: meditation, deep breathing, relaxation techniques

21

Individual Differences in Coping Style (why they are important)

Matching information and coping interventions to patient preference improves outcomes

22

Auerbach (1983) – Amount of Information and Distress

Studied effect of info given vs patient desire for info
Patients undergoing dental extraction given general or specific info on the procedure.
Those with a higher desire for info experiences less distress when given specific info, and those who had a low desire for info experiences less distress with general info

23

Effect of Perceived Control on Distress

Increased perceived control decreases distress

24

Langer and Rodin (1976) – Nursing Home Study

Study on the effect of perceived control of health
2 floors of a nursing home – one given more choice than the other
Floor given more choice reported greater engagement in activities, had a better general wellbeing and lower 18 month mortality rate

25

Strategies for helping children cope with treatment

Tell: use simple language and matter-of-fact style, the child is told what is going to happen before the procedure
Show: procedure is demonstrated using an inanimate object, a member of staff or the clinician themselves
Do: procedure does not begin until the child understands what will be done, prompt distraction strategies used during the procedure