5. Classification of Eukaryotes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5. Classification of Eukaryotes Deck (24):
1

How many main phyla of plants are there?

4

2

How does one distinguish between the 4 main phyla of plants?

by studying their external structure
- roots, stems and leaves
- reproductive structures

3

What are the 4 main phyla of plants?

- Bryophytes (mosses)
- Filicinophytes (ferns)
- Coniferophytes (conifers)
- Angiospermophytes (flowering plants)

4

Give the characteristic features of the external structure of Bryophytes.

roots, stems and leaves:
- structures similar to root hairs called rhizoids but no roots
- mosses have simple leaves and stems; liveworts have a flattened thallus
- no vascular tissue

reproductive structures:
- spores are produced in a capsule
- capsule develops at the end of a stalk

5

Give the characteristic features of the external structure of Filicinphytes.

roots, stems and leaves:
- roots, leaves and short non-woody stems
- leaves curled up in bud and often divided into pairs of leaflets (pinnate)
- vascular tissue is present

reproductive structures:
- spores produced in sporangia, usually on the underside of leaves

6

Give the characteristic features of the external structure of Coniferophytes.

roots, stems and leaves:
- shrubs or trees with roots, leaves and woody stems
- leaves often narrow with a thick waxy cuticle
- vascular tissue is present

reproductive structures:
- seeds, develop on ovules on the surface of the scales of female cones
- male cones produce pollen

7

Give the characteristic features of the external structure of Angiospermaophytes.

roots, stems and leaves:
- very variable, usually have roots, leaves and stems
- stems of shrubs and trees are woody
- vascular tissue is present

reproductive structures:
- seeds, develop from ovules inside ovaries in flowers
- fruits develop from the ovaries to disperse the seeds

8

How many phyla of animals are there?

30+

9

Name the 7 large phyla that you need to know recognition features for? (pics p69)

1. Porifera
2. Cnidaria
3. Platyhelminths
4. Annelida
5. Arthropoda
6. Mollusca
7. Chordata

10

Give 4 recognition features of Porifera and an example organism.

(you don't have to know the example it just helps remember the features)

- no clear symmetry
- attached to a surface
- pores through body
- no mouth or anus

sponge

11

Give 4 recognition features of Cnidaria and an example organism.

(you don't have to know the example it just helps remember the features)

- radially symmetric
- tentacles
- stinging cells
- mouth but no anus

jellyfish

12

Give 4 recognition features of Platyhelminths and an example organism.

(you don't have to know the example it just helps remember the features)

- bilaterally symmetric
- flat bodies
- unsegmented
- mouth but no anus

flatworm

13

Give 4 recognition features of Annelida and an example organism.

(you don't have to know the example it just helps remember the features)

- bilaterally symmetric
- bristles often present
- segmented
- mouth and anus

earthworm

14

Give 4 recognition features of Arthropoda and an example organism.

(you don't have to know the example it just helps remember the features)

- bilaterally symmetric
- exoskeleton
- segmented
- jointed appendages

scorpion

15

Give 4 recognition features of Mollusca and an example organism.

(you don't have to know the example it just helps remember the features)

- muscular foot and mantle
- shell usually present
- segmentation not visible
- mouth and anus

snail

16

Give 4 recognition features of Chordata and an example organism.

(you don't have to know the example it just helps remember the features)

- notochord
- dorsal nerve cord
- pharyngeal gill
- post-anal tail

tiger shark

17

What do almost all chordates have?

a backbone consisting of vertebrae

18

How can almost all vertebrate possessing chordata be described? What is the exception?

- as tetrapods with pentadactyl limbs, though in some species the limbs have become modified or lost through evolution
- fish ( they don't have the above)

19

Name the 5 major classes of vertebrate.

1. Bony ray-finned fish
2. Amphibians
3. Reptiles
4. Birds
5. Mammals

20

Give 5 recognition features of Bony ray-finned fish.

- scales grow from the skin
- gills with a single gill slit
- fins supported by rays
- swim bladder for bouyancy
- external fertilization

21

Give 5 recognition features of Amphibians.

- soft moist permeable skin
- lungs with small internal folds
- external fertilization in water
- protective gel around eggs
- larval stage lives in water

22

Give 5 recognition features of Reptiles.

- dry scaly impermeable skin
- lungs with extensive folding
- internal fertilization
- soft shells around eggs
- one type of teeth

23

Give 5 recognition features of Birds.

- feathers growing from skin
- lungs with parabronchial tubes
- wings instead of front legs
- hard shells around the eggs
- beak but no teeth

24

Give 5 recognition features of Mammals.

- hairs growing from the skin
- lungs with alveoli
- give birth to live young
- mammary glands secrete milk
- teeth of different types

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