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Flashcards in 5. Encoding & Learning Deck (15):

Massing vs spacing

Spacing of time is more advantageous than massing at one single time

Cramming leaves less time for forgetting but leads to short lived memories

Spaced learning sessions are more effective than massed learning trials


Why spacing improves learning

Temporal distinctiveness: inter fence reduction, better consolidation and shin from remember to know

There is diminished attention is massed items due to high familiarity

Learning may be a function of memory's level of accessibility when relearned, the less accessible the more learning occurs when restudied --> spacing decreases accessibility over time, therefore increasing the learning opportunities


Retrieval effect on memory

Testing yourself strengthens memories more than restudying items

?reflect retrieval effort
? Transfer appropriate processing (testing yourself is learning it in the same way it will be retrieved)


Levels of processing

Shallow, deep, semantic

The higher the level of processing, the stronger the memory store
EXCEPT rhyming which is shallow but has good recall

transfer appropriate processing is a good recall cue even if it's shallow
Doesn't explain the phenomenon


Encoding specificity

When the cues present at encoding match those at retrieval


Transfer appropriate processing

A kind of encoding specificity

When the method of processing at encoding is the same at retrieval



Organising knowledge into groups or hierarchies aids recall

Only possible with some prior knowledge


Knowledge is power

Having a degree of existing knowledge on the memory allows organisation of it

Chess experiment, experts chunked using LTM knowledge

Works in LTM too.. Reflects organisation and distinctiveness


Von restorff effect

Items are better remembered when they are distinctive and stand out from similar material

Effect not in hpc amnesics



Memory is superior when curious about the learning

fMRI scans show activation of reward centres

Involves the hpc and dopaminergic circuit


Pay attention

Attention is more important at encoding than retrieval to make meaningful stores

May help use elaborating encoding strategies which boost performance

Retrieval can happen fairly automatic if cues are available


But which method is best???

Practice and distributed practice!


Errorless learning

Don't give people a chance to learn things wrong

Improves memory for amnesics
Not always for healthy individuals because it also decreases their level of processing and reduces retrieval practise



Sleep improves consolidation (different forms) and enhances declarative and procedural memory

Effects can be seen for years later especially for emotional material (maybe stop Pete sleeping to reduce PTSD)


Practice makes perfect

Learning is time dependent

More initial repetitions, the more learning - linear relationship