5. Lymphatic System and Immunity Chp 16 (exam 2) Flashcards Preview

Bio 110 > 5. Lymphatic System and Immunity Chp 16 (exam 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5. Lymphatic System and Immunity Chp 16 (exam 2) Deck (77):
1

Functions of lymphatic system

-return excess tissue fluid back to the bloodstream
-lacteals absorb fat from villi of small intestine
-Help defend body against disease

2

lymphatic capillaries

closed-end tubes that collect interstitial fluid.
The cells forming the capillaries overlap, creating flap-like valves which open with increases interstitial pressure

3

lymphatic vessels

vein-like vessels with valves: return lymph back to the venous system by means of trunks

4

lymph nodes

round to ovoid structures located along the lymphatic vessels; with macrophages and lymphocytes

5

function of lymph nodes

filter infectious organisma and other debris
produce lymphocytes
surveillance

6

structure types of lymph nodes

capsule
nodules
lymph sinuses

7

Capsule

fibrous connective tissue

8

nodules

masses of lymphocytes & macrophages

9

lymph sinuses

chambers and channels through which lymph travels

10

Additional lymph organs

Spleen
Thymus

11

Spleen
(function)

largest lymph organ(upper left abd.)
purifies blood
immune function
stores blood (1cup)

12

Thymus
(function)

produces T lymphocytes and thymosin (stimulates T cell maturation). Progressive shrinking post puberty

13

disease

an abnormal state of the body in which the body is not capable of carrying on required functions

14

pathogens

disease causing organism
ex. bacteria, viruses, parasites, microorganisms, etc

15

Etiology

the study of any disease; origin, cause, classification.

16

innate defense

nonspecific (innate)
body's general defense against everything
(shotgun)

17

first line of defense

Mechanical
skin & mucous membranes

18

2nd line of defense

-chemical barriers (Hcl, tears, interferons, defensins,collectins)
-fever
-natural killer
-inflammation
-phagocytosis

19

Adaptive defense

specific - that is they target specific things

20

3rd LOD

Specific Defense(Sniper)
Immunity

21

interferons

lymphocytically produces: bind to uninfected cells stimulating them to produce virus replicating inhibiting proteins & stimulating phagocytosis

22

T cells

attach directly to the foreign invader. they are activated when a macrophage phagocytizes a bacterium, shifting some of the bacterium's antigens to the macrophages surface as a part of major histocompatability complex.

23

Other T cells

Helper T
Cytotoxic T
Memory T
Suppressor T
Natural Killer T

24

Helper T

(cheerleader) regulates and stimulates other cells

25

Cytotoxic T

(assasin) recognizes non-self antigens of cancerous/virally infected cells and destroys them via perforin. Some give rise to memory T cells.

26

Memory T

(historian) if there is a second exposure, Memory T differentiates to Cytotoxic T

27

Suppressor T

(peace maker) inhibit B & T cell activity

28

B cells

humoral immune response (fluid)
activated by exposure to antigen that fits receptors or being activated by helper T

29

B cell clones differentiate into

memory B cells or plasma cells that secrete antibodies which causes compliment activation

30

action of antibodies

-attack antigens to cause agglutinatin then phagocytic elimination
-activate complement (a group of proteins in plasma which are activated by antibodies)
-stimulate inflammation via mast cells

31

primary immune response

B&T after 1st encounter with antigen.Plasma cells release IgM & IgG. 5-10 day lag time; lasts several months.

32

secondary immune response

if future identical antigens,quick IgG response. 1 day onset, lasts years.

33

How exposed to immunities

naturally- active:exposed to pathogen passive:antibodies from mother
artificially active - vaccine
artificially passive - antiserum with antibodies

34

Allergy

an over-response to a "harmless" chemical that can damage tissues. Allergen binds to IgE on a mast cell; the cell releases histamine and other chemicals that may cause mucus secretions to increase and constriction of the air passageways in lungs.

35

Tissue rejection

a transplanted organ is recognized as not being from that person's body producing graft vs host disease
Take immunosuppressive drugs

36

Autoimmune Disease

autoantibodies are produced against an individual's own tissues and cytotoxic T cells attack

37

Lymph

fluid inside a lymph vessel

38

Trunks

trunks -> ducts
all lymphatic return goes into the subclavians

39

Lymphatic order

trunks -> ducts-> subclavians -> brachiocephalic->Superior Vena Cava

40

Edema

accumulation of tissue fluid causing swelling.

41

elephantiasis

a tropical parasitic worm; blocks the lymphatic vessels causing limb(s) to swell

42

tissue fluid

similar to plasma excepting proteins. It also contains small proteins, bacteria and viruses

43

The hydrostatic pressure...

of capillaries is greater that osmotic = net tissue fluid (interstitial)

44

lymph movement

-interstitial hydrostatic pressure
- muscular activity aided by valves

45

lymphoid organs

bone marrow
lymph nodes

46

bone marrow

produces lymphocytes

47

Locations of lymph nodes

cervical, axillary, inguinal, pelvic, abdominal, thoracic, supratrochlear

48

Spleen structure

Capsule: fibrous ct
Nodules: White pulp: masses of lymphocytes & red pulp: RBCs, lymphocytes/macrophages
Spleen sinuses-chambers and channels through which blood travel

49

Ruptured Spleen

if removed makes the person more susceptible to infection... antibiotics

50

lymphangitis

infected superficial lymph vessels
(red streak)

51

species resistance

don't get because "wrong" environment

52

defensins

peptides from WBCs that make holes in cell walls

53

collectins

proteins that bing to pathogenic sugars (on the surfaces of bacteria/yeasts) making for easier targeting for phagocytosis.

54

fever
(2nd line of defense)

iron slows pathogenic growth
-phagocytes become more active
-WBCs release interleukin-1 which raises set point of temperature in hypothalmus.

55

natural killer cells
(2nd LOD)

small subset of lymphocytes
- attack cancer and viruses by secreting perforins

56

phagocytosis
(2nd LOD)

via neutrophils & monocytes (give rise to macrophages) called chemotaxically and respond via diapedesis.

57

What composes mononuclear phagocytic system

Monos, macros, and neutros

58

Immunity

resistance to pathogens (including their toxins/bi-products). Based on differentiating between self and non-self. (proteins/large molecules inventoried before birth)

59

Antigens

proteins on a cell's surface; a body responds to nonself (foreign) antigens.

60

Haptens

molecules so small as to be unable to elicit an immune response unless combine with a larger one. Common in dust, dander and chemicals

61

Lymphocyte
(origins)

undifferentiated in red marrow
70% - thymus -> T cells
30% - in marrow -> B cells

62

Where do T cell and B cells primarily reside

in lymphatic organs/nodes

63

T Cell functions

Synthesize cytokines
-secrete toxins, growth inhibiting factors, interferon

64

Cytokines

enhance cellular responses to antigens (cell signaling protein)
Types: Interleukin-1 & 2, Colony-stimulating factors, interferons

65

Interleukin-1

activates T Cells

66

Interleukin-2

T Cell (esp. Killer T) proliferation

67

Colony-stimulating factors

leukocyte production, B cell growth & maturation, macrophage activation

68

Interferons

stimulate B cells to produce antibodies; macrophages to engulf viruses.

69

Each B cell can produce how many antibodies

2000/sec

70

Monoclonal vs Polyclonal response

Mono = 1 antibody
Poly = many antibodies against 1 antigen

71

Functions of complements

-help with phagocytosis by coating the a-a complex
-attract neutrophils & macrophages to an area by chemotaxis
-clump cells with antigens together
-rupture cell membranes
-deactivate a virus
-help prevent the spread of an agent

72

antibody types

IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE

73

Antibody molecules

immunoglobulins
globular proteins comprising the gamma (Y) grobulin fraction of plasma proteins. Consis of 2 identical short chaisn of aas and 2 identical long chains linked by sulfer. The 4 chains form a Y. The various combos of AAs give each antibody it's conformation

74

SCID

severe combined immunodeficiency
T & B cells quit

75

Allergy
(4 types)

Type 1. Anaphalaxis - immediate
2. Antibody depended cytotoxic - 1-3 hrs. (transfusion rx)
3. immune complex reaction (dermatitis)
4. Delayed; 48 hours

76

Examples of Autoimmune diseases

MS -mylein sheath
RA - synovial membrane
Myasthenia gravis - NM junction destroyed (flacid paralysis)
Lupus - CT
Type 1 diabetes - Pancreas
Scleroderma - CT (skin is hard)

77

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

increased interleukins & cytotoxic T Cells.