Flashcards in 5 - Motivation, Performance & Job Satisfaction Deck (24):
What is Motivation?
The force that energises people to act, directs behaviour toward the attainment of specific goals, and sustains effort expended in reaching those goals.
List the types of motivation theories
Job Design Theories
How does the need theory describe motivation and provide an example
Motivation is the process of the interaction among various needs and the drives to satisfy those needs
Example: Achievement Motivation Theory
Explain Achievement Motivation Theory
Is a need theory of motivation
Three needs are central to worker motivation. Need for;
Everyone has different levels of these and can thus be motivated in different ways.
Well tested and led to useful interventions
How do behaviour-based theories describe motivation
Focus on behavioural outcomes as critical to affecting work motivation
Three types; reinforcement theory, extrinsic/intrinsic motivation, goal setting theory
What is the Reinforcement Theory and what does it think the best way to motivate is?
Behaviour is motivated by its consequences
Through reinforcement as punishment can lead to resentment and anger.
Ratio schedules are the best (despite fixed interval being used commonly for $)
In the extrinsic/intrinsic theory of motivation, which do they believe is more important in increasing motivation?
Intrinsic motivation is better but providing extrinsic rewards (i.e. money) can provide positive feedback.
What is Goal Setting Theory of Motivation?
Emphasises the setting of specific and challenging performance goals.
People perform better and are more productive when they have specific goals and clear standards for success and failure. Even better when they set their own goals.
Goals should be difficult, but obtainable
How do Job Design Theories of motivation believe it is influenced?
The structure and design of a job are key in motivating workers.
E.g. Job Characteristics Model
What is the Job Characteristics Model?
To be motivated employees must:
- Perceive work to be meaningful
- Feel responsible for the job
- Have knowledge of the results of their effects.
5 job characteristics contribute to these states
- Skill variety
- Task identity
- Task significance
General support for this structure, lead to Job Enrichment intervention strategy, to redesign jobs.
How do Cognitive Theories of Motivation perceive motivation and what are the types of theories?
Workers viewed as rational beings who cognitively assess personal costs and benefits before taking action.
Two types; equity and expectancy
Describe the Equity Theory of motivation
Workers are motivated by a desire to be treated fairly
The ratio between inputs and outcomes should be the same for all workers. Workers adjust productivity based on perceived comparison ratios.
People vary in concern for equity; benevolents (givers), entitleds (takers), equity sensitives (adhere to notions strictly, distressed when underpaid, guilty overpaid).
Describe Expectancy (VIE) Theory of motivation
People are rational decision makers who analyse the benefits and costs of the possible courses of action.
Motivation and productivity are increased when;
-Valence: the rewards are valuable and desirable
- Instrumentality: their performance will be recognised and rewarded.
- Expectancy: their effort will result in improved performance
Predicts worker attendance and productivity
Various incentive programs are thus used to motivate by reward.
How many factors affect performance?
Not just motivation,
System and technology, individual differences, group dynamics, organisational
What are Performance Appraisals?
The evaluation of an employee and communication of the result to that person.
Performance criteria are derived from job analysis. and are typically subjective
What are sources of performance ratings?
What are some issues with performance appraisals?
- Leniency/severity/central tendency errors
- Halo effects
- Contrast effects
- Causal attribution errors
- Personal biases
How do we improve performance appraisals?
- Making ratings shortly after observation
- Taking careful notes
- Using multiple raters
- Training raters in necessary skills
- Giving raters evaluation instruments up front
What is performance feedback?
The process of providing information to a worker regarding performance level with suggestions for improving future performance
What is effective performance feedback entail?
Lots of constructive information
-Descriptive rather than evaluative
- Specific rather than general
- Directed towards behaviour that the worker can do something about
- Understood by both parties
- Proactive and coactive
What is job satisfaction?
The positive and negative feelings and attitudes employees hold about a job
How can job satisfaction be measured?
Global approach or facet approach (specific job aspects)
Facet measured through; Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire or Job Descriptive Index
Both have high reliability and validity
How are job satisfaction and on-the-job behaviour related?
Moderate positive correlation between job satisfaction and job performance.
- High job satisfaction is related to prosocial behaviour. Prosocial behaviour is related to high job performance and productivity.
- Lower job satisfaction is related to antisocial actions and counterproductive behaviours (poor service, theft, sabotage equipment) that may thwart organisational goals.
- Job satisfaction and absenteeism are negatively correlated.
- Low job satisfaction is related to higher rates of turnover.