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Flashcards in (5) Neuro SLO Deck (46):
1

Biogenic amines include ACh, NE, EPI and __?__
A. Melatonin
B. Dopamine
C. Serotonin
D. Histamine
E. All of the neurotransmitters listed are biogenic amines.

Melatonin, Dopamine, Serotonin, Histamine - ALL

2

Catecholamines are hormones produced by the adrenal medulla. They include NE, EPI and __?__.
A. Histamine
B. Acetylcholine
C. Serotonin
D. Melatonin
E. Dopamine

Dopamine

3

If a neuron is in the Sympathetic Nervous System, it is (has) __?__
A. All the answers are correct.
B. Mostly adrenergic receptors.
C. Coming from the ventral surface of the medulla in the brain stem.
D. Part of the "flight or fight" component of the ANS.
E. Not generally under conscious control.

Not generally under conscious control, Part of the "flight or fight" component of the ANS, Coming from the ventral surface of the medulla in the brain stem, Mostly adrenergic receptors - ALL

4

If a neuron is part of the Autonomic Nervous System, it is in that part of the peripheral nervous system that is __?__.
A. Controlled by conscious thought.
B. In control of skeletal muscle.
C. In the spinal cord only.
D. Not generally under conscious control.
E. In the brain.

Not generally under conscious control.

5

If a neuron is part of the Parasympathetic Nervous System, it is/has __?__.
A. Muscarinic receptors.
B. Part of the "rest and digest" aspects of the ANS.
C. Not generally under conscious control.
D. Originates in the brain stem mostly with cranial nerve X (the Vagus)
E. All of the answers are correct.

Muscarinic receptors, Part of the "rest and digest" aspects of the ANS, Not generally under conscious control, Originates in the brain stem mostly with cranial nerve X (the Vagus) - ALL

6

If it is "Adrenergic," it is a(n) __?__
A. Sympathetic end organ receptor, either alpha or beta
B. ACh receptors, which may be in the CNS or PNS. In the PNS, they are in the somatic NMJ and in ANS ganglion
C. Receptors located in autonomic ganglia and at the parasympathetic end organ, on a few sympathetic end organs and on many non-enervated cells.
D. Connection point between the somatic motor neuron and the skeletal muscle. The somatic neuron releases ACh, which diffuses across junction (gap) and binds to the receptor on skeletal muscle. This triggers the opening of an ion channel, which depolarizes the skeletal muscle and results in muscle contraction.
E. ACh receptors. Very wide distribution, not all are enervated. Enervated receptors are located in the CNS or PNS. In the PNS, they are at all PSNS end organs, and in the SNS in a few very important locations (SWEAT GLANDS).

Sympathetic end organ receptor, either alpha or beta

7

If it is "Cholinergic," it is a(n) __?__
A. ACh receptor, which may be in the CNS or PNS.
B. NE receptor located in the sympathetic nervous system.
C. Nuclear receptor, which generally modulate gene function.
D. Sympathetic end organ receptor, either alpha or beta.
E. Ion channel that is opened by depolarization of the cell membrane.

ACh receptor, which may be in the CNS or PNS.

8

Mirtazapine (Remeron) is an antidepressant that affects a number of CNS receptors including the 5-HT3 receptor. Mirtazapine inhibits the 5-HT3 receptors found on the CTZ, so you would expect Mirtazapine to be ___ ? ____.
A. Antiemetic like scopolamine
B. Antimigraine like sumatriptan
C. Antiemetic like haloperidol
D. Anxiolytic like buspirone
E. Antiemetic like ondansetron

Antiemetic like Ondansetron (Zofran)

9

Olanzapine (Zyprexa) is an atypical antipsychotic that affects a number of CNS receptors including the 5-HT3 receptor. Olanzapine inhibits the 5-HT3 receptors found on the CTZ, so you would expect Olanzapine to be antiemetic like ____.
A. Diphenhydramine
B. Aprepitant
C. Scopolamine
D. Haloperidol
E. Ondansetron

Ondansetron (Zofran)

10

The Muscarinic receptors are __?__
A. Receptors located in autonomic ganglia (for feedback inhibition) and at the parasympathetic end organ, on a few sympathetic end organs and on many non-enervated cells.
B. Nuclear receptors, which are simply Ligand receptors located on the cell nucleus and which generally modulate gene function
C. ACh receptors with a very wide distribution, and not all are enervated. Enervated receptors are located in the CNS or PNS. In the PNS, they are at all PSNS end organs, and in the SNS in a few very important locations (SWEAT GLANDS)
D. ACh receptors, which may be in the CNS or PNS. In the PNS, they are in the somatic NMJ and in ANS ganglion
E. Sympathetic end organ receptors, either alpha or beta

Receptors located in autonomic ganglia (for feedback inhibition) and at the parasympathetic end organ, on a few sympathetic end organs and on many non-enervated cells.

11

The Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ) is the __?__
A. ACh receptors with a very wide distribution, and not all are enervated. Enervated receptors are located in the CNS or PNS. In the PNS, they are at all PSNS end organs, and in the SNS in a few very important locations (SWEAT GLANDS).
B. Connection point between the somatic motor neuron and the skeletal muscle. The somatic neuron releases ACh, which diffuses across junction (gap) and binds to the receptor on skeletal muscle. This triggers the opening of an ion channel, which depolarizes the skeletal muscle and results in muscle contraction.
C. Receptor type located in autonomic ganglia and at the parasympathetic end organ, on a few sympathetic end organs and on many non-enervated cells.
D. Sympathetic end organ receptor, either alpha or beta
E. None of the listed answers is correct.

Connection point between the somatic motor neuron and the skeletal muscle. The somatic neuron releases ACh, which diffuses across junction (gap) and binds to the receptor on skeletal muscle. This triggers the opening of an ion channel, which depolarizes the skeletal muscle and results in muscle contraction.

12

The Nicotinic receptors are __?_
A. ACh receptors, which may be in the CNS or PNS. In the PNS, they are in the somatic NMJ and in ANS ganglion
B. ACh receptors with a very wide distribution, and not all are enervated. Enervated receptors are located in the CNS or PNS. In the PNS, they are at all PSNS end organs, and in the SNS in a few very important locations (SWEAT GLANDS).
C. Receptors located in autonomic ganglia and at the parasympathetic end organ, on a few sympathetic end organs and on many non-enervated cells.
D. Complicated receptors that are activated by the binding of a Ligand that triggers the activation of a second messenger system that then proceeds to carry out various tasks, which may include opening an ion channel, activating genes for protein synthesis or turning off processes within the cell.
E. Sympathetic end organ receptors, either alpha or beta

ACh receptors, which may be in the CNS or PNS. In the PNS, they are in the somatic NMJ and in ANS ganglion

13

Which Agonizes the 5-HT1A receptor? It is a non-sedating anxiolytic.
A. Sumatriptan
B. Fluoxetine
C. Ondansetron
D. Trazodone
E. Buspirone

Buspirone (Buspar)

14

Which Agonizes the 5-HT1D receptor? It is used to treat migraine.
A. Fluoxetine (Prozac)
B. Sumatriptan (Imitrex)
C. Ondansetron (Zofran)
D. Buspirone (Buspar)
E. Trazodone (Desyrel)

Sumatriptan (Imitrex)

15

Which blocks adenosine (purine) receptors?
A. None of the drugs listed block adenosine receptors.
B. Theophylline
C. Aminophylline
D. Caffeine (in coffee, for instance)
E. All of the drugs listed block adenosine receptors.

Caffeine (in coffee, for instance), Theophylline, Aminophylline - ALL

16

Which blocks dopamine-2 (D2) receptors in the CNS? Because there are D2 receptors on the Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone (CTZ), the part of your brain that detects information in the blood about toxicants, many of these drugs are also anti emetics.
A. Opioids like morphine
B. Antihypertensives like clonidine (Catapres)
C. Antidepressants like fluoxetine (Prozac)
D. Antipsychotics like haloperidol (Haldol)
E. Amphetamines, like dextroamphetamine

Antipsychotics like haloperidol (Haldol)

17

Which blocks the 5-HT2 receptors? Is is used mostly as an antidepressant.
A. Sumatriptan
B. Ondansetron
C. Buspirone
D. Trazodone
E. Fluoxetine

Trazodone (Desyrel, Oleptro)

18

Which inhibits monoamine oxidase? It was the first transdermal patch antidepressant and is used to treat Parkinson's disease and senile dementia.
A. Fluoxetine
B. Selegiline
C. Venlafaxine
D. Amphetamines
E. Donepezil

Selegiline (Carbex, Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar)

19

Which inhibits the 5-HT transporter? It is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
A. Ondansetron
B. Fluoxetine
C. Buspirone
D. Sumatriptan
E. Trazodone

Fluoxetine (Prozac)

20

Which inhibits the release of acetylcholine (ACh)? It has many uses including cosmetic procedures.
A. Lidocaine
B. Reserpine
C. Amlodipine
D. Digoxin
E. Botulinum toxin

Botulinum toxin

21

Which inhibits the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine? It is used as an antidepressant?
A. Venlafaxine
B. Fluoxetine
C. Donepezil
D. Selegiline
E. Amphetamines

Venlafaxine (Pristiq)

22

Which inhibits the sodium/potassium ATPase pump and is used to treat heart failure and atrial arrhythmias?
A. Lidocaine
B. Botulinum toxin
C. Reserpine
D. Amlodipine
E. Digoxin

Digoxin (Lanoxin)

23

Which inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels and is used as a local anesthetic?
A. Digoxin
B. Reserpine
C. Amlodipine
D. Lidocaine
E. Botulinium toxin

Lidocaine (Anestacon, XXX-caine)

24

Which is a Calcium Channel Blocker (CCB) used most often to treat angina and hypertension?
A. Reserpine
B. Digoxin
C. Amlodipine
D. Botulinum toxin
E. Lidocaine

Amlodipine (Norvasc)

25

Which is a centrally-active acetylcholinesterase inhibitor? It is used to treat Alzheimer's disease.
A. Donepezil
B. Fluoxetine
C. Amphetamines
D. Selegiline
E. Venlafaxine

Donepezil (Aricept)

26

Which is a GABA-A Agonist?
A. Baclofen
B. All of the listed drugs are GABA-A agonists.
C. The general anesthetics, like propofol.
D. The barbiturates, like phenobarbital
E. The benzodiazepines, like diazepam (Valium)

The general anesthetics, like propofol, Baclofen, the benzodiazepines, like diazepam (Valium), the barbiturates, like phenobarbital - ALL

27

Which is a Muscarinic agonist (stimulates muscarinic ACh receptors)? It is used to treat urinary retention (non-obstructive neurogenic bladder).
A. Epinephrine
B. Albuterol
C. Varenicline
D. Clonidine
E. Bethanechol

Bethanechol (Urecholine)

28

Which is a nicotinic antagonist (blocks nicotinic receptors at the NMJ)? It is used to induce skeletal muscle paralysis in preparation for (usually) insertion of tracheal tube and surgery?
A. Phentolamine
B. Solifenacin
C. Pancuronium
D. Propranolol
E. Atropine

Pancuronium (Pavulon)

29

Which is an alpha 2 Agonist? The a2 receptors in the CNS decrease sympathetic outflow. The sympathetic nervous system causes vasoconstriction and otherwise mediates increases in blood pressure, so this drug acts to decrease blood pressure.
A. Haloperidol
B. Buspirone
C. Ondansetron
D. Clonidine
E. Sumatriptan

Clonidine (Catapres)

30

Which is an antiemetic that works by blocking the NK1 receptors on the CTZ?
A. Theophylline (Theo-24)
B. Aprepitant (Emend)
C. Trazodone (Desyrel)
D. Ranitidine (Zantac)
E. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

Aprepitant (Emend)

31

Which opioid analgesics are "morphine-like" mu (µ) agonists? Other opioids are mixed agonist-antagonists or target one of the other opioid receptors.
A. All the drugs listed are morphine-like opioids.
B. Methadone
C. Hydrocodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Meperidine

Methadone, Hydrocodone, Fentanyl, Mepperidine - ALL

32

Which selectively inhibits the reuptake of serotonin (SSRI) and is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic?
A. Venlafaxine
B. Amphetamines
C. Donepezil
D. Selegiline
E. Fluoxetine

Fluoxetine (Prozac)

33

Which of these blocks the 5-HT3 receptors in the CNS and GIT? Mirtazapine (Remeron) & Olanzapine (Zyprexa) also block the 5-HT3 receptors and can be used as antiemetics
A. Fluoxetine
B. Buspirone
C. Ondansetron
D. Trazodone
E. Sumatriptan

Ondansetron (Zofran)

34

Which is a 1st generation antihistamine?
A. Aprepitant (Emend)
B. Theophylline (Theo-24)
C. Ranitidine (Zantac)
D. Sumatriptan (Imitrex)
E. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
* Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton)
* Promethazine (Phenergan)

35

Which is a Beta-1 blocker and the top selling antihypertensive in the world? It is also used to treat angina.
A. Propranolol
B. Atropine
C. Metoprolol
D. Atenolol
E. Albuterol

Meteprolol (Lopressor, Toprol)

36

Which is a beta-2 agonist? It is used to treat asthma and COPD.
A. Phentolamine
B. Albuterol
C. Metoprolol
D. Bethanechol
E. Doxazosin

Albuterol (Proventil)

37

Which is a H2 receptor blocker with little CNS activity. It acts to reduce gastric acid secretion?
A. Aprepitant
B. Diphenhydramine
C. Theophylline
D. Ranitidine
E. Ondansetron

Ranitidine (Zantac)

38

Which is a mixed Alpha and Beta Agonist? It is used to treat anaphylaxis among other things.
A. Propranolol
B. Metoprolol
C. Albuterol
D. Epinephrine
E. Atropine

Epinephrine (Epipen)

39

Which is a mixed beta blocker (blocks both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors)? It has many uses including hypertension, angina, migraine, performance anxiety and others.
A. Atropine
B. Albuterol
C. Propranolol
D. Metoprolol
E. Atenolol

Propranolol (Generics)

40

Which is a mixed alpha ANTagonist (blocks both alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors)? It is used to protect tissues from extravasated catecholamines.
A. Phentolamine
B. Metoprolol
C. Atropine
D. Solifenacin
E. Doxazosin

Phentolamine (Regitine, Oraverse)

41

Which is a muscarinic ANTagonist (anticholinergic)? It has many uses including to block secretions.
A. Clonidine
B. Bethanechol
C. Phentolamine
D. Doxazosin
E. Atropine

Atropine (Atropen)

42

Which is a nicotinic Agonist? It is used in smoking cessation.
A. Varenicline
B. Epinephrine
C. Bethanechol
D. Clonidine
E. Albuterol

Varenicline (Chantix)

43

Which is an alpha-1 ANTagonist? It is used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH).
A. Atropine
B. Doxazosin
C. Clonidine
D. Metoprolol
E. Epinephrine

Doxazosin (Cardura)

44

Which an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist (stimulates α2 receptors)? It is used to treat hypertension and chronic pain (with an analgesic).
A. Epinephrine
B. Bethanechol
C. Albuterol
D. Clonidine
E. Varenicline

Clonidine (Catapres)

45

Which of these is an NMDA ANTagonist?
A. Memantine
B. All of the listed drugs are NMDA antagonists.
C. Dextromethorphan
D. Ketamine
E. Tramadol

Ketamine, Memantine, Dextromethorphan, Tramadol - ALL

46

Which is ANTIcholinergic? It is used to treat urinary incontinence (over-active bladder syndrome).
A. Metoprolol
B. Solifenacin
C. Propranolol
D. Phentolamine
E. Doxazosin

Solifenacin (Vesicare)