5: Nutrition - preconception, pregnancy and postpartum Flashcards Preview

Reproduction Week 2 2018/19 > 5: Nutrition - preconception, pregnancy and postpartum > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5: Nutrition - preconception, pregnancy and postpartum Deck (36)
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1

Being (underweight / overweight) carries risk for a pregnant woman and her unborn child.

both

being overweight AND underweight carries risk

2

What are the BMI thresholds for being

a) underweight

b) overweight?

c) obese?

a) < 18.5 = underweight

b) 25.0 - 29.9 = overweight

c) 30+ = obese

3

What menstrual problem do underweight women suffer from?

Amenorrhoea

4

What causes amenorrhoea in women who are underweight?

Hormonal changes

Body doesn't ovulate because it knows it isn't strong enough to support a pregnancy

5

What sexual problem do both underweight and overweight women suffer from?

Infertility

6

Overweight and underweight women take longer to ___ a child.

conceive

7

Which endocrine problem are overweight women more likely to develop when they are pregnant?

(Gestational) diabetes

8

What is macrosomia?

A fetus which is significantly larger than average (4kg+)

9

What complications of pregnancy can occur as a result of an overweight mother?

Miscarriage / Stillbirth

Pre-eclampsia

Macrosomia

Fetal abnormalities

Gestational diabetes

10

Paradoxically, malnourished fetuses are at risk of developing which condition when they are born?

Type 2 diabetes

Fetus is prepared for a nutrient-sparse environment and then overloaded with sugar upon birth

11

What is the generic dietary advice you would give to any patient?

Meals based on starchy foods

Five portions of fruit and vegetables a day

High in fibre

Low in saturated fat

12

What generic lifestyle advice would you give to pregnant woman?

Eat a balanced diet

Exercise regularly

Don't smoke or drink too much (no smoking, up to 4 units/week)

13

Which supplements are pregnant women given?

Folic acid

Vitamin C & D

14

Why are pregnant women given folic acid supplements?

To prevent NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS (e.g spina bifida) in their children

15

Which dietary supplement is given to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects in their children?

Folic acid

16

What dose of folic acid is given to pregnant women?

400 micrograms

(Exception: 5 MILLIgrams in women at high risk)

17

Which women are at increased risk of having children with neural tube defects?

Overweight

Diabetic

History of NTDs in previous children

Women on antiepileptics

18

Which doses of folic acid are given to women with

a) an average risk of children having neural tube defects

b) increased risk?

a) 400 micrograms

b) 5 milligrams

19

Apart from supplements, where does most of a woman's folic acid intake come from?

Diet

Leafy greens

20

Apart from folic acid, which other dietary supplements are given to pregnant women?

Vitamin C & D

21

What dose of Vitamin D is given to pregnant women?

10 micrograms / day

22

Are iron supplements regularly given to pregnant women?

No

Thought to cause more harm (re: side effects) than good

23

What doses of

a) Folic acid

b) Vitamin C

c) Vitamin D

are given to pregnant women as part of the Healthy Start scheme?

a) 400 micrograms

b) 70 milligrams

c) 10 micrograms

24

What is a foetal consequence of maternal Vitamin D deficiency?

Rickets

25

Which

a) supplements

b) vouchers

are pregnant women offered as part of the Healthy Start Scheme?

a) Vitamin C & D, Folic acid

b) Food vouchers (roughly £3.10 a week, for basic foods like bread and fruit/veg)

26

Which foods should pregnant women avoid?

Soft cheese - Listeria

Uncooked meats

Raw eggs

Tuna

Vitamin supplements (apart from this recommended already)

27

What are some maternal complications of being overweight during pregnancy?

Diabetes

Hypertension

Thrombosis

Infection

28

What are some foetal complications of (the mother) being overweight during pregnancy?

Macrosomia

Miscarriage / Stillbirth

29

Do pregnant women need to "eat for two"?

No

But they do need to eat a healthy, well-balanced diet

30

Which type of diabetes can overweight women develop in pregnancy?

Gestational diabetes